The rs3818361 single nucleotide polymorphism in complement component (3b/4b) receptor-1 (CR1) is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this novel variant is associated with a small effect size and is unlikely to be useful as a predictor of AD risk, it might provide insights into AD pathogenesis. We examined the association between rs3818361 and brain amyloid deposition in nondemented older individuals.
We used (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound-B positron emission tomography to quantify brain amyloid burden in 57 nondemented older individuals (mean age 78.5 years) in the neuroimaging substudy of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. In a replication study, we analyzed (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound-B positron emission tomography data from 22 cognitively normal older individuals (mean age 77.1 years) in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset.
Risk allele carriers of rs3818361 have lower brain amyloid burden relative to noncarriers. There is a strikingly greater variability in brain amyloid deposition in the noncarrier group relative to risk carriers, an effect explained partly by APOE genotype. In noncarriers of the CR1 risk allele, APOE ε4 individuals showed significantly higher brain amyloid burden relative to APOE ε4 noncarriers. We also independently replicate our observation of lower brain amyloid burden in risk allele carriers of rs3818361 in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative sample.
Our findings suggest complex mechanisms underlying the interaction of CR1, APOE, and brain amyloid pathways in AD. Our results are relevant to treatments targeting brain Aβ in nondemented individuals at risk for AD and suggest that clinical outcomes of such treatments might be influenced by complex gene-gene interactions.
"Indeed, PSEN1-mutation-related AD is conceived as a disease of Aβ anabolism while at least some forms of common, sporadic AD (i.e., that linked to APOE4;) are conceived as a disease of Aβ catabolism. Other genes linked to common, sporadic AD (e.g., CR1) appear to act via the immune response and may modulate cerebral amyloidosis in unexpected ways . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) encodes the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, and PSEN1 mutations are the most common cause of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). In order to elucidate pathways downstream of PSEN1, we characterized neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from FAD mutant PSEN1 subjects. Thus, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from affected and unaffected individuals from two families carrying PSEN1 mutations. PSEN1 mutant fibroblasts, and NPCs produced greater ratios of Aβ42 to Aβ40 relative to their control counterparts, with the elevated ratio even more apparent in PSEN1 NPCs than in fibroblasts. Molecular profiling identified 14 genes differentially-regulated in PSEN1 NPCs relative to control NPCs. Five of these targets showed differential expression in late onset AD/Intermediate AD pathology brains. Therefore, in our PSEN1 iPSC model, we have reconstituted an essential feature in the molecular pathogenesis of FAD, increased generation of Aβ42/40, and have characterized novel expression changes.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84547. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084547 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The initial study, ADNI-1, enrolled 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 with early AD, and 200 cognitively normal elderly controls. ADNI-1 was extended by a 2-year Grand Opportunities grant in 2009 and by a competitive renewal, ADNI-2, which enrolled an additional 550 participants and will run until 2015. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results to the end of 2013. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are largely consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimer's Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151-3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers select and combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, amyloid PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of blood biomarkers for AD as potentially noninvasive and low-cost alternatives to CSF biomarkers for AD diagnosis and the assessment of α-syn as an additional biomarker; (5) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, β-amyloid 42 and tau, as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly symptomatic or even nonsymptomatic subjects and are leading candidates for the detection of AD in its preclinical stages; (6) the improvement of clinical trial efficiency through the identification of subjects most likely to undergo imminent future clinical decline and the use of more sensitive outcome measures to reduce sample sizes. Multimodal methods incorporating APOE status and longitudinal MRI proved most highly predictive of future decline. Refinements of clinical tests used as outcome measures such as clinical dementia rating-sum of boxes further reduced sample sizes; (7) the pioneering of genome-wide association studies that leverage quantitative imaging and biomarker phenotypes, including longitudinal data, to confirm recently identified loci, CR1, CLU, and PICALM and to identify novel AD risk loci; (8) worldwide impact through the establishment of ADNI-like programs in Japan, Australia, Argentina, Taiwan, China, Korea, Europe, and Italy; (9) understanding the biology and pathobiology of normal aging, MCI, and AD through integration of ADNI biomarker and clinical data to stimulate research that will resolve controversies about competing hypotheses on the etiopathogenesis of AD, thereby advancing efforts to find disease-modifying drugs for AD; and (10) the establishment of infrastructure to allow sharing of all raw and processed data without embargo to interested scientific investigators throughout the world.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 10/2011; 8(1 Suppl):S1-68. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.09.172 · 12.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aside from apolipoprotein E (APOE), genetic risk factors for β amyloid deposition in cognitively intact individuals remain to be identified. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates neural plasticity, which has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. We examined in cognitively normal older adults whether the BDNF codon 66 polymorphism affects β amyloid burden and the relationship between β amyloid burden and cognitive scores, and how this relates to the effect of APOE. Amyloid load was measured by means of (18)F-flutemetamol PET in 64 community-recruited cognitively intact individuals (mean age 66, S.D. 5.1). Recruitment was stratified according to a factorial design with APOE (ε4 allele present vs absent) and BDNF (met allele at codon 66 present vs absent) as factors. Individuals in the four resulting cells were matched by the number of cases, age, and gender. Among the APOE ε4 carriers, BDNF met positive subjects had a significantly higher amyloid load than BDNF met negative subjects, while BDNF met carrier status did not have an effect in APOE ε4 noncarriers. This interaction effect was localized to precuneus, orbitofrontal cortex, gyrus rectus, and lateral prefrontal cortex. In the APOE ε4/BDNF met carriers, a significant inverse relationship existed between episodic memory scores and amyloid burden but not in any of the other groups. This hypothesis-generating experiment highlights a potential role of BDNF polymorphisms in the preclinical phase of β amyloid deposition and also suggests that BDNF codon 66 polymorphisms may influence resilience against β amyloid-related effects on cognition.
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