Patterns and predictors of first-line chemotherapy use among adults with advanced non-small cell lung cancer in the cancer research network.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Relatively low rates of chemotherapy receipt have been observed in older patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in SEER-Medicare-based studies. However, little is known about variation in first-line NSCLC chemotherapy use in younger patients, health maintenance organization (HMO)-based settings, and for high-cost, novel agents, such as bevacizumab and erlotinib. METHODS: A cohort of 6614 stage IIIB/IV NSCLC patients aged ≥21 years diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 was identified at four HMOs that participate in the Cancer Research Network (CRN). Demographic, comorbidity, tumor characteristics, and chemotherapy treatment data were included in logistic regression models to identify factors associated with chemotherapy receipt and tests of association examined secular and age-specific variation in first-line chemotherapy regimens. RESULTS: Within 120 days of diagnosis, 3612 (55%) patients received chemotherapy; increasing from 52% of patients diagnosed in 2000 to 59% in 2007 (p<0.001). Receipt was significantly higher for patients aged <65 years (64% versus 46% in ≥65) and was inversely related to stage and comorbidites (all p<0.001). Carboplatin and paclitaxel were received most frequently. Erlotinib and bevacizumab use in the later years of the study was associated with a significant change in distributions of first-line chemotherapies (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: For patients alive 30 days post diagnosis, chemotherapy use was higher in the aged population (>65 years) than previously published estimates, and higher still among younger patients. Chemotherapy use increased over the observation period, and the mix of first-line therapies used changed substantially over time. Of note, novel, high cost treatments were used in first-line therapy prior to FDA approval, increasing significantly throughout the study period. These findings demonstrate the utility of HMO CRN data to augment SEER-Medicare to conduct comparative effectiveness research related to chemotherapy use and the use of specific agents, especially among younger patients.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Randomized trials report equivalent efficacy among various combinations of platinum-based regimens in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Their relative effectiveness and comparability based on squamous versus nonsquamous histology is uncertain. METHODS: The authors used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked data to identify first-line chemotherapy agents administered to Medicare beneficiaries with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC diagnosed from 2000 to 2007. Overall survival was compared between patients who received the 3 most common regimens: carboplatin-paclitaxel, carboplatin-gemcitabine, and carboplatin-docetaxel. Stratified analyses distinguished between the outcomes of patients with squamous versus nonsquamous cell histology. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and propensity score analyses facilitated adjustment for imbalance in measurable patient characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 15,318 patients who received first-line chemotherapy, 43.1% received carboplatin-paclitaxel, 14.3% received carboplatin-gemcitabine, 8.5% received carboplatin-docetaxel, and 34.1% received other regimens. The median survival was 8.0 months (interquartile range [IQR], 3.5-17.4 months) for carboplatin-paclitaxel, 7.3 months (IQR, 3.4-15.2 months) for carboplatin-gemcitabine, and 7.5 months (IQR, 3.2-16.0 months) for carboplatin-docetaxel. Both multivariable and propensity score-adjusted Cox models demonstrated a slight inferiority associated with carboplatin-gemcitabine or carboplatin-docetaxel versus carboplatin-paclitaxel, with a hazard ratio of 1.10 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.15) and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.16), respectively, in propensity score-stratified models. Among the subgroup of 2063 patients with squamous carcinoma, propensity score-stratified analyses had a higher risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.35) associated with carboplatin-gemcitabine versus carboplatin-paclitaxel. CONCLUSIONS: Carboplatin-paclitaxel was associated with slightly better survival compared with carboplatin-gemcitabine or carboplatin-docetaxel within the Medicare population with advanced NSCLC, and this was most pronounced for patients who had squamous cell histology. Cancer 2013;. © 2013 American Cancer Society.Cancer 06/2013; 119(11). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28022 · 4.90 Impact Factor
- JNCI Monographs 08/2013; 2013(46):124-30. DOI:10.1093/jncimonographs/lgt011
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ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab plus carboplatin-paclitaxel (BCP) chemotherapy has Food and Drug Administration approval for advanced nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer based upon improved survival in a clinical trial. However, subgroup analyses of this and other studies have suggested variable results by age and gender. Using data from four health maintenance organizations (HMOs) belonging to the Cancer Research Network, 1605 HMO nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer patients aged younger than 21 years, diagnosed 2002-2010, who received carboplatin-paclitaxel (CP), with and without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of stage IIIB/IV disease were identified. Patients were categorized into three groups based on year of diagnosis and regimen during 120 days postdiagnosis: (1) diagnosed 2005-2010 and received BCP; (2) 2005-2010, CP (CP2005), and (3) 2002-2004, CP (CP2002). Survival differences between groups were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models with several propensity score adjustments for demographic, comorbidity, and tumor characteristics. Multivariable subanalyses were also estimated. Median survival was 12.3 months (interquartile range [IQR], 6.0-29.1) for BCP patients versus 8.8 months (IQR, 3.7-21.3) for CP2005 patients and 7.5 months (IQR, 3.8-15.6) for CP2002 patients. In the propensity score-adjusted models, BCP demonstrated a significant survival benefit with a hazard ratio of BCP relative to CP2005 and CP2002 patients of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.94) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.52-0.75), respectively. In the multivariable-adjusted subanalyses, relative to the CP2005 cohort, the BCP hazard ratios for patients age less than 65 years, age 65 years old or older, and females were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62-1.00), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.54-1.00), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.58-1.00). In this community-based, comparative effectiveness analysis, we found an overall survival benefit for adults receiving BCP compared with CP.Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 03/2014; DOI:10.1097/JTO.0000000000000127 · 5.80 Impact Factor