Article

Lysine restricted diet for pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: First evidence and future trials

Treatable Intellectual Disability Endeavour in British Columbia (TIDE-BC), Department of Pediatrics, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.83). 09/2012; 107(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.09.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dietary lysine restriction as an adjunct to pyridoxine therapy on biochemical parameters, seizure control, and developmental/cognitive outcomes in children with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) caused by antiquitin (ATQ) deficiency. METHODS: In this observational study, seven children with confirmed ATQ deficiency were started on dietary lysine restriction with regular nutritional monitoring. Biochemical outcomes were evaluated using pipecolic acid and α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AASA) levels in body fluids; developmental/cognitive outcomes were evaluated using age-appropriate tests and parental observations. RESULTS: Lysine restriction was well tolerated with good compliance; no adverse events were reported. Reduction in biomarker levels (measurement of the last value before and first value after initiation of dietary lysine restriction) ranged from 20 to 67% for plasma pipecolic acid, 13 to 72% for urinary AASA, 45% for plasma AASA and 42% for plasma P6C. For the 1 patient in whom data were available and who showed clinical deterioration upon interruption of diet, cerebrospinal fluid levels decreased by 87.2% for pipecolic acid and 81.7% for AASA. Improvement in age-appropriate skills was observed in 4 out of 5 patients showing pre-diet delays, and seizure control was maintained or improved in 6 out 7 children. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study provides Level 4 evidence that lysine restriction is well tolerated with significant decrease of potentially neurotoxic biomarkers in different body compartments, and with the potential to improve developmental outcomes in children with PDE caused by ATQ deficiency. To generate a strong level of evidence before this potentially burdensome dietary therapy becomes the mainstay treatment, we have established: an international PDE consortium to conduct future studies with an all-inclusive integrated study design; a website containing up-to-date information on PDE; a methodological toolbox; and an online registry to facilitate the participation of interested physicians, scientists, and families in PDE research.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sidney M Gospe, Jr, Jun 29, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
253 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Untreated epileptic encephalopathies in children may potentially have disastrous outcomes. Treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) often may not control the seizures, and even if they do, this measure is only symptomatic and not specific. It is especially valuable to identify potential underlying conditions that have specific treatments. Only a few conditions have definitive treatments that can potentially modify the natural course of disease. In this paper, we discuss the few such conditions that are responsive to vitamin or vitamin derivatives.
    01/2013; 2013:510529. DOI:10.1155/2013/510529
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive disorders affecting pyridoxine (vitamin B6) metabolism are a rare but well-recognized cause of neonatal seizures. Antiquitin deficiency, caused by mutations in ALDH7A1, is a disorder of the lysine degradation pathway causing accumulation of an intermediate that complexes with pyridoxal phosphate. Reports of long-term follow-up of neonatal pyridoxine-dependent seizures (PDS) remain scarce and prognostic information is varied. We report a case of PDS in a 47-year-old lady who originally presented shortly after birth in 1964. Pyridoxine replacement was successful and diagnostic confirmation was obtained later in life, initially by biochemical analysis of serum pipecolic acid. Subsequently we organized genetic analysis of ALDH7A1, which revealed compound heterozygous mutations. To our knowledge, this represents the longest duration of follow-up published to date.
    02/2013; DOI:10.1007/8904_2012_210
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to report two new cases of hyperlysinemia type I describing the clinical, biochemical and molecular features of the disease and the outcome of lysine restriction. Two children presented with febrile seizures followed by developmental delay, clumsiness and epilepsy. At age 2 and 8years a biochemical and genetic diagnosis of hyperlysinemia type I was confirmed and lysine-restricted diet was started in both cases. Three years after initiation of lysine restriction, case 1 had not suffered further seizures. In case 2, tremor and dysmetria improved, but fine motor clumsiness persisted. Mild cognitive impairment was present in both patients despite dietary treatment. Laboratory studies: Plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid amino acid concentrations were measured by ion exchange chromatography. Mutation analysis of the AASS gene was performed by directly sequencing the PCR products. The plasma lysine values were higher than 1200μmol/L in both cases. Additionally, an increase in dibasic aminoaciduria was observed. Lysine restriction decreased plasma lysine values and nearly normalised dibasic aminoaciduria. Mutational screening of the AASS gene revealed that case 1 was a compound heterozygote for c.2662+1_2662+5delGTAAGinsTT and c.874A>G and that case 2 was a compound heterozygote for c.976_977delCA and c.1925C>G. In conclusion, we present two children with hyperlysinemia type I and neurological impairment in which implementation of lysine-restricted diet achieved a mild improvement of symptoms but did not reverse cognitive impairment. The partial decrease of lysine concentrations and the normalisation of urine excretion of dibasic amino acids after lysine restriction further reinforce the possibility of this therapeutic intervention, although further investigations seem necessary.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 07/2013; 110(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.06.021 · 2.83 Impact Factor