Micro-Composition of Human Urinary Calculi Using Advanced Imaging Techniques.

University of California San Francisco, Department of Urology.
The Journal of urology (Impact Factor: 3.75). 09/2012; DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.09.098
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Common methods of commercial urolithiasis analysis such as light microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy provide limited or no information about the molecular composition of stones, which is vital when studying early stone pathogenesis. Our objective was to utilize synchrotron radiation based micro-focused X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption, and X-ray diffraction advanced imaging techniques to identify and map the elemental composition, including trace elements, of urinary calculi on a micrometer (0.0001 cm) scale. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human stone samples were obtained during serial percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy procedures. A portion of each sample was sent for commercial stone analysis and a portion was retained for synchrotron radiation based advanced imaging analysis. RESULTS: Synchrotron radiation based methods of stone analysis correctly identify stone composition and give additional molecular detail about elemental components and spatial distribution in uroliths with resolution on the order of a few micrometers. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of all elements present in lithogenesis at this detail allows for better understanding of early stone formation events, which may provide additional insight to prevent and treat stone formation.