Subsets of Nonclonal Neighboring CD4+ T Cells Specifically Regulate the Frequency of Individual Antigen-Reactive T Cells
ABSTRACT After an immune response, the expanded population of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells contract to steady state levels. We have found that the contraction is neither cell-autonomous nor mediated by competition for generic trophic factors, but regulated by relatively rare subsets of neighboring CD4(+) T cells not necessarily of a conventional regulatory T cell lineage. These regulators, referred to as deletors, specifically limit the frequency of particular antigen-specific T cells even though they are not reactive to the same agonist as their targets. Instead, an isolated deletor could outcompete the target for recognition of a shared, nonstimulatory endogenous peptide-MHC ligand. This mechanism was sufficient to prevent even agonist-driven autoimmune disease in a lymphopenic environment. Such a targeted regulation of homeostasis within narrow colonies of T cells with related TCR specificities for subthreshold ligands might help to prevent the loss of unrelated TCRs during multiple responses, preserving the valuable diversity of the repertoire.
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ABSTRACT: The vertebrate antigen receptors are anticipatory in their antigen recognition and display a vast diversity. Antigen receptors are assembled through V(D)J recombination, in which one of each Variable, (Diverse), and Joining gene segment are randomly utilized and recombined. Both gene rearrangement and mutational insertion are generated through randomness; therefore, the process of antigen receptors generation requires a rigorous testing system to select every receptor which is useful to recognize foreign antigens, but which would cause no harm to self cells. In the case of T cell receptors (TCR), such a quality control responsibility rests in thymic positive and negative selection. In this review, we focus on the critical involvement of self-peptides in the generation of a T cell repertoire, discuss the role of T cell thymic development in shaping the specificity of TCR repertoire, and directing function fitness of mature T cells in periphery. Here, we consider thymic positive selection to be not merely a one-time maturing experience for an individual T cell, but a life-long imprinting which influences the function of each individual T cell in periphery.Current topics in microbiology and immunology 04/2013; 373. DOI:10.1007/82_2013_319 · 3.47 Impact Factor
Article: TGF-β: Guardian of T cell function[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A fundamental aspect of the adaptive immune system is the generation and maintenance of a diverse and self-tolerant T cell repertoire. Through its regulation of T cell development, homeostasis, tolerance, and differentiation, the highly evolutionarily conserved cytokine TGF-β critically supports a functional T cell pool. The pleiotropic nature of this regulation is likely due to the elaborate control of TGF-β production and activation in the immune system, and the intricacy of TGF-β signaling pathways. In this review we discuss the current understanding of TGF-β regulation of T cells.The Journal of Immunology 10/2013; 191(8):3973-3979. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1301843 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: T-cell receptor (TCR) polyclonal mature T cells are surprisingly resistant to oncogenic transformation after retroviral insertion of T-cell oncogenes. In a mouse model, it has been shown that mature T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (MTCLL) is not induced upon transplantation of mature, TCR polyclonal wild-type (WT) T cells, transduced with gammaretroviral vectors encoding potent T-cell oncogenes, into RAG1-deficient recipients. However, further studies demonstrated that quasi-monoclonal T cells treated with the same protocol readily induced MTCLL in the recipient mice. It has been hypothesized that in the TCR polyclonal situation, outgrowth of preleukemic cells and subsequent conversion to overt malignancy is suppressed through regulation of clonal abundances on a per-clone basis due to interactions between TCRs and self-peptide-MHC-complexes (spMHCs), while these mechanisms fail in the quasi-monoclonal situation. To quantitatively study this hypothesis, we applied a mathematical modeling approach. In particular, we developed a novel ordinary differential equation model of T-cell homeostasis, in which T-cell fate depends on spMHC-TCR-interaction-triggered stimulatory signals from antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Based on our mathematical modeling approach, we identified parameter configurations of our model, which consistently explain the observed phenomena. Our results suggest that the preleukemic cells are less competent than healthy competitor cells in acquiring survival stimuli from APCs, but that proliferation of these preleukemic cells is less dependent on survival stimuli from APCs. These predictions now call for experimental validation.Frontiers in Immunology 11/2013; 4:380. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00380