Article

Sibling composition during childhood and adult blood pressure among native Amazonians in Bolivia.

Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454-9110, USA. Electronic address: .
Economics and human biology (Impact Factor: 2.02). 09/2012; DOI: 10.1016/j.ehb.2012.08.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sibling configuration, including birth order, or the number, age, and sex of siblings is associated with parental resource allocation between children and is thus associated with a person's well-being. Little is known about the association between specific types of siblings and adult health outcomes. Here we test several hypotheses about sibling composition (number of older brothers, older sisters, younger sisters, younger brothers) and adult blood pressure in a foraging-farming society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'). We collected data in 2007 from 374 adults (16-60years of age) from 196 households in 13 villages. Household random-effects multiple regressions were run using systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as outcomes; covariates included the four sibling categories and control variables (e.g., sex, age, education, body mass index [BMI]). Mean SBP and DBP were 114 (SD=14) and 66 (SD=11)mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 5.08%. Having an additional younger brother bore a small (3.3-5.9%) positive association with both SBP and DBP, with the effect weakening as people aged. Having an additional younger sister was associated with a small (3.8%) increase in SBP among women, with the magnitude shrinking as people aged. In a large family, the number of younger brothers may exert an impact on an individual's blood pressure.

1 Bookmark
 · 
311 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper documents the impact of siblings on the education of men and women born in the United States between 1920 and 1965. We examine the effect of the number and sex composition of a boy or girl's siblings on that child's educational attainment. We find that throughout the century women's educational choices have been systematically affected by the sex composition of her siblings, and that men's choices have not. Women raised only with brothers have received on average significantly more education than women raised with any sisters, controlling for household size. Since sibling sex composition affects women's educational attainment and plausibly may be unrelated to other determinants of earnings, it may provide a useful instrument for education in earnings functions for women. Our results suggest that standard estimates significantly underestimate the return to schooling for women. Copyright 1994, the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 02/1994; 109(3):531-63.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prediction of cardiovascular risk profile trends in low-income countries and timely action to modulate their transitions are among the greatest global health challenges. In 2005 we evaluated a nationally representative sample of the Mozambican population (n=3323; 25 to 64 years old) following the Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Prevalence of hypertension (systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy), awareness (having been informed of the hypertensive status by a health professional in the previous year), treatment among the aware (use of antihypertensive medication in the previous fortnight), and control among those treated (blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg) were 33.1% (women: 31.2%; men: 35.7%), 14.8% (women: 18.4%; men: 10.6%), 51.9% (women: 61.1%; men: 33.3%), and 39.9% (women: 42.9%; men: 28.7%), respectively. Urban/rural comparisons are presented as age- and education-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. Among women, hypertension (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.0) and awareness (OR: 4.3; 95% CI: 1.9 to 9.5) were more frequent in urban areas. No urban/rural differences were observed in men (hypertension: OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9 to 2.0; awareness: OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.5 to 4.7). Treatment prevalence was not significantly different across urban/rural settings (women: OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.5 to 4.4; men: OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 to 1.4). Control was less frequent in urban women (OR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.0 to 1.0) and more frequent in urban men (OR: 78.1; 95% CI: 2.2 to 2716.6). Our results illustrate the changing paradigms of "diseases of affluence" and the dynamic character of epidemiological transition. The urban/rural differences across sexes support a trend toward smaller differences, emphasizing the need for strategies to improve prevention, correct diagnosis, and access to effective treatment.
    Hypertension 08/2009; 54(1):77-83. · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of adult mortality in low-income countries but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension are scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study aims to assess the prevalence of hypertension and determinants of blood pressure in four SSA populations in rural Nigeria and Kenya, and urban Namibia and Tanzania. We performed four cross-sectional household surveys in Kwara State, Nigeria; Nandi district, Kenya; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Greater Windhoek, Namibia, between 2009-2011. Representative population-based samples were drawn in Nigeria and Namibia. The Kenya and Tanzania study populations consisted of specific target groups. Within a final sample size of 5,500 households, 9,857 non-pregnant adults were eligible for analysis on hypertension. Of those, 7,568 respondents ≥ 18 years were included. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of hypertension in each of the populations under study. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 19.3% (95%CI:17.3-21.3) in rural Nigeria, 21.4% (19.8-23.0) in rural Kenya, 23.7% (21.3-26.2) in urban Tanzania, and 38.0% (35.9-40.1) in urban Namibia. In individuals with hypertension, the proportion of grade 2 (≥ 160/100 mmHg) or grade 3 hypertension (≥ 180/110 mmHg) ranged from 29.2% (Namibia) to 43.3% (Nigeria). Control of hypertension ranged from 2.6% in Kenya to 17.8% in Namibia. Obesity prevalence (BMI ≥ 30) ranged from 6.1% (Nigeria) to 17.4% (Tanzania) and together with age and gender, BMI independently predicted blood pressure level in all study populations. Diabetes prevalence ranged from 2.1% (Namibia) to 3.7% (Tanzania). Hypertension was the most frequently observed risk factor for CVD in both urban and rural communities in SSA and will contribute to the growing burden of CVD in SSA. Low levels of control of hypertension are alarming. Strengthening of health care systems in SSA to contain the emerging epidemic of CVD is urgently needed.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e32638. · 3.73 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
51 Downloads
Available from
Jun 6, 2014