Article

The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) in female Roman high- (RHA-I) and low-avoidance (RLA-I) rats

Department of Psychology, University of Jaén, Paraje de Las Lagunillas s/n, Edif. D-2, 23071 Jaén, Spain.
Behavioural Brain Research (Impact Factor: 3.39). 01/2009; 194(2):187-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.07.009
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ABSTRACT The present experiment was designed with the goal of studying the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) in female inbred Roman high- (RHA-I) and low-avoidance (RLA-I) rats. Two groups of RHA-I and two of RLA-I food-deprived animals were placed in a straight alley where they were partially or continuously reinforced. Once the animals reached the acquisition criterion, they were exposed to an extinction phase where the reinforcement was omitted. During the extinction phase RHA-I animals continuously reinforced during acquisition exhibited more resistance to extinction than their RLA-I counterparts, whereas only RLA-I rats partially reinforced during acquisition showed an increased resistance to extinction in comparison to continuously reinforced control RLA-I rats, this PREE being absent in RHA-I animals. These results are discussed within the framework of PREE theories that account for this effect by using emotional mechanisms, as pertains to the repeatedly observed RHA-RLA differences in emotional reactivity.

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    • "There is behavioral, pharmacological, hormonal, neurobiological, and genetic evidence that these situations induce anxiety [17–19,48]. The Manzo studies involved inbred high-and low-avoidance Roman rat strains (RHA-I, RLA-I), selected for their differential ability to acquire a two-way active avoidance response; RLA-I rats are also more vulnerable than RHA-I rats to anxiogenic situations [48] [49], including situations involving reward loss [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56]. The main result was the selective enhancement of ethanol preference immediately after extinction sessions in the induction task. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rats increased preference for ethanol after sessions of appetitive extinction, but not after acquisition (reinforced) sessions (Manzo et al., Physiol Behav 2014;123:86-92). Drinking was not influenced by appetitive extinction in control groups with postsession access to water, rather than ethanol. Because ethanol has anxiolytic properties in tasks involving reward loss, these results were interpreted as anti-anxiety self-medication. The present experiment tested the potential for self-medication with the prescription anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, a benzodiazepine with an addictive profile used in the treatment of anxiety disorders. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats exposed to a 32-to-4% sucrose devaluation received a two-bottle, 2-h preference test immediately after consummatory training. One bottle contained 1mg/kg of chlordiazepoxide, 2% ethanol, or water for different groups (the second bottle contained water for all groups). Three additional groups received the same postsession preference tests, but were exposed to 4% sucrose during consummatory training. Rats showed suppression of consummatory behavior after reward devaluation relative to unshifted controls. This effect was accompanied by a selective increase in preference for chlordiazepoxide and ethanol. Downshifted animals with access to water or unshifted controls with access to the anxiolytics failed to exhibit postsession changes in preference. Similar results were observed in terms of absolute consumption and consumption relative to body weight. This study shows for the first time that a prescription anxiolytic supports enhanced voluntary consumption during periods of emotional distress triggered by reward loss. Such anti-anxiety self-medication provides insights into the early stages of addictive behavior.
    Behavioural Brain Research 09/2014; 278. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.09.017 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    • "The authors interpreted that grouped animals showed a decrease in emotion or anxiety, and thus rats in this condition showed no PREE. These results are in line with current research, which shows that low anxiety inbred lines rats (Roman high-avoidance inbred lines) do not show PREE in instrumental procedures (Gómez et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: In consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC), when rats receive 32% of sweetened water and are unexpectedly exposed to 4% of the same solution, they consume less than those who received 4% regularly. In consummatory extinction (cE), rats receiving a 32% or 4% sugar solution stop lapping when presented with an empty tube. In both cases, these situations trigger an aversive emotional reaction similar to fear and anxiety called frustration or negative contrast effect. Isolation conditions in adulthood increase anxiety responses. We describe an experiment in which isolated or grouped rats in adulthood are evaluated in an elevated plus maze (EPM), in cSNC and cE. Results show that rats in groups express less anxiety and activity in EPM and more persistence in cE than isolated rats. There are no differences between the two housing conditions in cSNC. We discuss these results on the basis of frustration theories.
    Behavioural processes 01/2012; 90(2):155-60. DOI:10.1016/j.beproc.2012.01.003 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    • "Alternatively, it has been repeatedly found that, as opposed to the freezing response usually observed in RLA-I rats, RHA-I animals tend to show higher levels of locomotor activity and novelty seeking responses when coping with challenging and novel situations [9] [10], as well as higher behavioral indexes of impulsivity [11]. Although these divergences could alternatively explain the faster runway behavior observed on RHA-I rats in comparison to the RLA-I rats, previous results obtained in our laboratory indicate that the strain differences observed in the speed of the running response can be abolished by exposing animals to partial reinforcement, as opposed to continuous reinforcement, suggesting the implication of emotional/frustration mechanisms in the between-strain differences observed in this instrumental task [22] "
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    ABSTRACT: Frustration is an emotional response that can be induced by the sudden devaluation of a reinforcer in the presence of greater reinforcement expectancies (e.g. instrumental successive negative contrast, iSNC). This emotional response seems to be similar to anxiety and can be attenuated by previous experiences of reward loss (e.g. partial reinforcement, PR, as opposed to continuous reinforcement, CR). In this study we used iSNC and PR procedures in order to compare the performance of two strains of rats psychogenetically selected on the basis of their emotional reactivity: the inbred Roman High- (RHA-I, low anxiety) and Low- (RLA-I, high anxiety) Avoidance rats. Animals were exposed to a straight alley, where they were changed from 12 pellets in the preshift phase (presented in 100% of trials-CR vs. 50% of trials-PR) to 2 pellets in the postshift phase, or exposed to 2 pellets throughout the training. The results indicated that the iSNC only appeared in RLA-I rats exposed to CR, as opposed to RLA-I animals exposed to PR and to RHA-I rats exposed to PR or CR. These data seem to support the implication of emotional responses in both iSNC and PR situations, and indicate that the behavioral reactivity to reward loss experiences is modulated by genetic variables.
    Physiology & Behavior 12/2011; 105(5):1112-6. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.12.006 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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