Preventing type 2 diabetes: public health implications for women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus
ABSTRACT There is now strong evidence that lifestyle modification can prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in high-risk individuals. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and so are candidates for prevention programs. We review literature on type 2 diabetes risk in women with gestational diabetes, examine current recommendations for postpartum and long-term follow-up, and summarize findings from a 2007 expert-panel meeting. We found data to support that women with gestational diabetes have an increase in risk of type 2 diabetes comparable in magnitude with that of individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and/or impaired fasting glucose and that prevention interventions likely are effective in this population. Current recommendations from leading organizations on follow-up of women after delivery are conflicting and compliance is poor. Clinicians and public health workers face numerous challenges in developing intervention strategies for this population. Translation research will be critical in addressing this important public health issue.
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Article: Is Glyburide Safe in Pregnancy?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The clinical recognition and adequate treatment of women with hyperglycemia during pregnancy is important in order to minimize neonatal complications associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The traditional management of women with GDM in whom diet therapy fails involves subcutaneous insulin administration. However, insulin therapy has several disadvantages. It is therefore highly desirable to find an effective alternative to insulin. Glyburide (also known as glibenclamide) is currently classified as Category C by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in pregnancy. Despite the fact that the FDA does not approve glyburide for the treatment of GDM, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended in 2013 that: "when pharmacologic treatment of GDM is indicated, insulin and oral medications are equivalent in efficacy, and either can be an appropriate first-line therapy". These conflicting standpoints result from published contradictory data concerning the risks and benefits of the use of glyburide for the treatment of women with GDM. In this focused review we first present the current state of knowledge about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glyburide, including aspects of the transplacental transport and placental metabolism of the drug, and then we comment on several clinical studies describing the use of glyburide for the treatment of women with GDM. Since the contradictory data primarily concern the transfer of glyburide across the placenta, further rigorous scientific researches focusing on this issue are required in order to develop evidence-based guidelines for the use of glyburide for the treatment of women with GDM.Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 03/2014; DOI:10.2174/1389201015666140330200254 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Our study assessed the follow-up of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the postpartum period among a racially and ethnically diverse group of women receiving care in a major urban medical center. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analysis of clinical and administrative data on women aged 18-44 years who gave birth at Boston Medical Center (BMC) between 2003 and 2009, had GDM, and used BMC for regular care. We calculated the rate of glucose testing by 70 days and by 180 days after delivery and used logistic regression to assess the predictors of testing. Results: By 6 months postpartum, only 23.4% of GDM-affected women received any kind of glucose test. Among these, over half had been completed by 10 weeks but only 29% were the recommended oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After accounting for sociodemographic and health service factors, women aged ≤35 years of age and women with a family practice provider were significantly less likely to be tested than their counterparts (odds ratio [OR] 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32, 0.83 and OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.19, 0.71 respectively). Women who attended a primary care visit within 180 days after birth had three times higher odds of being tested than those without such a visit (OR 3.10; 95% CI 1.97, 4.87). Conclusions: Despite widely disseminated clinical guidelines, postpartum glucose testing rates are exceedingly low, marking a critical missed opportunity to launch preventive care for women at high risk of type 2 DM. Failed follow-up of GDM by providers of prenatal and postpartum care also reflects a broader systems failure: the absence of a well-supported transition from pregnancy care to ongoing primary care for women.Journal of Women's Health 04/2014; 23(4):327-34. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2013.4628 · 1.90 Impact Factor