Biohydrogen production from cattle wastewater by enriched anaerobic mixed consortia: influence of fermentation temperature and pH.
ABSTRACT Experiments were conducted to select a natural mixed microflora seed source and investigate the effect of temperature and pH on fermentative hydrogen (H2) production from cattle wastewater by sewage sludge. Sewage sludge was shown to have higher cumulative H2 production than other inoculum collected from cow dung compost, chicken manure compost, and river sludge. Experimental results show that H2 production from cattle wastewater was significantly affected by both pH and temperature of the culture. The maximum H2 yield was obtained at pH 5.5. H2 yield and the ratio of butyrate/acetate (Bu/Ac) followed a similar production trend, suggesting that butyrate formation might favor H2 production. The optimal temperature for H2 production from cattle wastewater was 45 degrees C with peak values of H2 production (368 ml), hydrogen yield of 319 ml H2/g chemical oxygen demand (COD) consumed, and butyrate/acetate ratio of 1.43. Presence of ethanol and propionic acid indicated decreased hydrogen production; their concentrations were also affected by pH and temperature. A modified Gompertz model adequately described H2 production and bacterial growth.
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ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Several reports have demonstrated the feasibility of hydrogen production by dark fermentation (DF). However, most reports had resorted to mesophilic or thermophilic conditions to increase hydrogen yield, overlooking the energy input to the process and hence, loss of net energy gain. For net positive energy gain, energy input to the process should be minimized and additional energy should be harvested from the aqueous end products of DF. Our previous study presented an approach to assess the potential for net energy gain from the hydrogen produced by DF, and from the end products of DF via anaerobic digestion (AD) or microbial fuel cells (MFC). In this study, that approach is extended to identify the most promising process configuration and operating conditions to maximize net energy gain possible from liquid and particulate organic wastes. Based on this analysis, DF followed by MFC appears to result in higher net energy gains.International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 11/2011; · 4.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dramatically rising oil prices and increasing awareness of the dire environmental consequences of fossil fuel use, including startling effects of climate change, are refocusing attention worldwide on the search for alternative fuels. Hydrogen is poised to become an important future energy carrier. Renewable hydrogen production is pivotal in making it a truly sustainable replacement for fossil fuels, and for realizing its full potential in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. One attractive option is to produce hydrogen through microbial fermentation. This process would use readily available wastes as well as presently unutilized bioresources, including enormous supplies of agricultural and forestry wastes. These potential energy sources are currently not well exploited, and in addition, pose environmental problems. However, fuels are relatively low value products, placing severe constraints on any production process. Therefore, means must be sought to maximize yields and rates of hydrogen production while at the same time minimizing energy and capital inputs to the bioprocess. Here we review the various attributes of the characterized hydrogen producing bacteria as well as the preparation and properties of mixed microflora that have been shown to convert various substrates to hydrogen. Factors affecting yields and rates are highlighted and some avenues for increasing these parameters are explored. On the engineering side, we review the potential waste pre-treatment technologies and discuss the relevant bioprocess parameters, possible reactor configurations, including emerging technologies, and how engineering design-directed research might provide insight into the exploitation of the significant energy potential of biomass resources.Indian Journal of Microbiology 03/2009; 49(1):48-59. · 0.51 Impact Factor
Dataset: Enhancement of batch biohydrogen production from prehydrolysate of acid treated oil palm empty fruit bunch[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Carbohydrates from hydrolyzed biomass has been a potential feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production. In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was treated by sulfuric acid in different concentrations at 120 C for 15 min in the autoclave. The optimal condition for pretreatment was obtained when OPEFB was hydrolyzing at 6% (w/v) sulfuric acid concentration, which gave the highest total sugar of 26.89 g/L and 78.51% of sugar production yield. However, the best conversion efficiency of OPEFB pretreatment was 39.47 at sulfuric acid concentration of 4%. A series of batch fermentation were performed to determine the effect of pH in fermentation media and the potential of this prehydrolysate was used as a substrate for fermentative hydrogen production under optimum pretreat-ment conditions. The prehydrolysate of OPEFB was efficiently converted to hydrogen via fermentation by acclimatized mixed consortia. The maximum hydrogen production was 690 mL H 2 L À1 medium, which corresponded to the yield of 1.98 molH 2 /mol xylose achieved at pH 5.5 with initial total sugar concentration of 5 g/L. Therefore, the results implied that OPEFB prehydrolysate is prospective substrate for efficient fermentative hydrogen con-ducted at low controlled pH. No methane gas was detected throughout the fermentation.