Biohydrogen production from cattle wastewater by enriched anaerobic mixed consortia: influence of fermentation temperature and pH.
ABSTRACT Experiments were conducted to select a natural mixed microflora seed source and investigate the effect of temperature and pH on fermentative hydrogen (H2) production from cattle wastewater by sewage sludge. Sewage sludge was shown to have higher cumulative H2 production than other inoculum collected from cow dung compost, chicken manure compost, and river sludge. Experimental results show that H2 production from cattle wastewater was significantly affected by both pH and temperature of the culture. The maximum H2 yield was obtained at pH 5.5. H2 yield and the ratio of butyrate/acetate (Bu/Ac) followed a similar production trend, suggesting that butyrate formation might favor H2 production. The optimal temperature for H2 production from cattle wastewater was 45 degrees C with peak values of H2 production (368 ml), hydrogen yield of 319 ml H2/g chemical oxygen demand (COD) consumed, and butyrate/acetate ratio of 1.43. Presence of ethanol and propionic acid indicated decreased hydrogen production; their concentrations were also affected by pH and temperature. A modified Gompertz model adequately described H2 production and bacterial growth.
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ABSTRACT: Influence of different pretreatment methods applied on anaerobic mixed inoculum was evaluated for selectively enriching the hydrogen (H(2)) producing mixed culture using dairy wastewater as substrate. The experimental data showed the feasibility of molecular biohydrogen generation utilizing dairy wastewater as primary carbon source through metabolic participation. However, the efficiency of H(2) evolution and substrate removal efficiency were found to be dependent on the type of pretreatment procedure adopted on the parent inoculum. Among the studied pretreatment methods, chemical pretreatment (2-bromoethane sulphonic acid sodium salt (0.2 g/l); 24 h) procedure enabled higher H(2) yield along with concurrent substrate removal efficiency. On the contrary, heat-shock pretreatment (100 degrees C; 1 h) procedure resulted in relatively low H(2) yield. Compared to control experiments all the adopted pretreatment methods documented higher H(2) generation efficiency. In the case of combination experiments, integration of pH (pH 3; adjusted with ortho-phosphoric acid; 24 h) and chemical pretreatment evidenced higher H(2) production. Data envelopment analysis (DEA), a frontier analysis technique model was successfully applied to enumerate the relative efficiency of different pretreatment methods studied by considered pretreatment procedures as input and cumulative H(2) production rate and substrate degradation rate as corresponding two outputs.Bioresource Technology 02/2008; 99(1):59-67. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of pH on the conversion of glucose to hydrogen by a mixed culture of fermentative bacteria was evaluated. At 36 degrees C, six hours hydraulic retention, over 90% of glucose was degraded at pH ranging 4.0-7.0, producing biogas and an effluent comprising mostly fatty acids. At the optimal pH of 5.5, the biogas comprised 64 +/- 2% of hydrogen with a yield of 2.1 +/- 0.1 mol-H2/mol-glucose and a specific production rate of 4.6 +/- 0.4 l-H2/(g-VSS day). The effluent was composed of acetate (15.3-34.1%) and butyrate (31.2-45.6%), plus smaller quantities of other volatile fatty acids and alcohols. The diversity of microbial communities increased with pH, based on 16S rDNA analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).Bioresource Technology 04/2002; 82(1):87-93. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For the transition to the hydrogen economy, hydrogen must be produced sustainably, e.g., by the fermentation of agricultural material. Continuous fermentative production of hydrogen from an insoluble substrate in nonsterile conditions is yet to be reported. In this study hydrogen production using mixed microflora from heat-treated digested sewage sludge in nonsterile conditions from a particulate co-product of the wheat flour industry (7.5 g L(-1) total hexose) at 18- and 12-hour hydraulic retention times, pH 4.5 and 5.2, 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C was examined. In continuous operation, hydrogen yields of approximately 1.3 moles hydrogen/mole hexose consumed were obtained, but decreased if acetate or propionate levels rose, indicating metabolism shifted towards hydrogen consumption by homoacetogenesis or propionate producers. These shifts occurred both at pH 4.5 and 5.2. Sparging the reactor with nitrogen to reduce hydrogen in the off-gas from 50% to 7% gave stable operation with a hydrogen yield of 1.9 moles hydrogen /mole hexose consumed over an 18-day period.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 01/2004; 84(6):619-26. · 3.65 Impact Factor