Protein kinase CK2 in human diseases.
ABSTRACT Protein kinase CK2 (formerly referred to as casein kinase II) is an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitous protein kinase. There are two paralog catalytic subunits, i.e. alpha (A1) and alpha' (A2). The alpha and alpha' subunits are linked to two beta subunits to produce a heterotetrameric structure. The catalytic alpha subunits are distantly related to the CMGC subfamily of kinases, such as the Cdk kinases. There are some peculiarities associated with protein kinase CK2, which are not found with most other protein kinases: (i) the enzyme is constitutively active, (ii) it can use ATP and GTP and (iii) it is found elevated in most tumors investigated and rapidly proliferating tissues. With the elucidation of the structure of the catalytic subunit, it was possible to explain why the enzyme is constitutively active  and why it can bind GTP . Considerable information on the potential roles of CK2 in various disease processes including cancer has been gained in recent years, and the present review may help to further elucidate its aberrant role in many disease states. Its peculiar structural features [3-9] may be advantageous in designing tailor-made compounds with the possibility to specifically target this protein kinase . Since not all the aspects of what has been published on CK2 can be covered in this review, we would like to recommend the following reviews; (i) for general information on CK2 [11-18] and (ii) with a focus on aberrant CK2 [19-22].
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ABSTRACT: In this work, the quantitative structure-activity relationship models were developed for predicting activity of a series of compounds as CK2 inhibitors using multiple linear regressions and support vector machine methods. The data set consisted of 48 compounds was divided into two subsets of training and test set, randomly. The most relevant molecular descriptors were selected using the genetic algorithm as a feature selection tool. The predictive ability of the models was evaluated using Y- randomization test, cross-validation and external test set. The genetic algorithm- multiple linear regression model with six selected molecular descriptors was obtained and showed high statistical parameters (R2train=0.893, R2test=0.921, Q2LOO= 0.844, F=43.17, RMSE=0.287). Comparison of the results between GA-MLR and GA-SVM demonstrates that GA-SVM provided better results for the training set compounds, however the predictive quality for both models are acceptable. The results suggest that atomic mass and polarizabilities and also number of heteroatom in molecules are the main independent factors contributing to the CK2 inhibition activity. The predicted results of this study can be used to design of new and potent CK2 inhibitors.Arabian Journal of Chemistry 01/2015; 9. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the deadliest human solid tumors in the developed countries characterized by high resistance towards chemotherapeutic treatment. We have previously shown that silencing of the pro-survival protein kinase CK2 by RNA interference contributes to enhance the cytotoxicity of the chemotherapeutic agent 2’,2’-difluoro 2’-deoxycytidine (gemcitabine). Initial experiments showed that pentachlorophenol (PCP) inhibits CK2 and induces cell death in human pancreatic cancer cell lines. We report here evidence that exposure of this type of cells to PCP induces caspase-mediated apoptosis, inhibition of the lysosome cysteine protease cathepsin B and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Beside cellular inhibition of CK2, the analysis of signaling pathways de-regulated in pancreatic cancer cells revealed that PCP causes decreased phosphorylation levels of NF-κB/p65, suppresses its nuclear translocation and leads to activation of JNK-mediated stress response. Surprisingly, exposure to PCP results in increased phosphorylation levels of AKT at the canonical S473 and T308 activation sites supporting previous data showing that AKT phosphorylation is not predictive of tumor cell response to treatment. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the effects induced by the exposure of pancreatic cancer cells to chlorinated aromatic compounds posing the basis for more advanced studies in vivo.Toxicology Reports 11/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Protected and specific delivery of nucleic acids to malignant cells remains a highly desirable approach for cancer therapy. Here we present data on the physical and chemical characteristics, mechanism of action, and pilot therapeutic efficacy of a tenfibgen (TBG)-shell nanocapsule technology for tumor-directed delivery of single stranded DNA/RNA chimeric oligomers targeting CK2αα' to xenograft tumors in mice. The sub-50 nm size TBG nanocapsule (s50-TBG) is a slightly negatively charged, uniform particle of 15 - 20 nm size which confers protection to the nucleic acid cargo. The DNA/RNA chimeric oligomer (RNAi-CK2) functions to decrease CK2αα' expression levels via both siRNA and antisense mechanisms. Systemic delivery of s50-TBG-RNAi-CK2 specifically targets malignant cells, including tumor cells in bone, and at low doses reduces size and CK2-related signals in orthotopic primary and metastatic xenograft prostate cancer tumors. In conclusion, the s50-TBG nanoencapsulation technology together with the chimeric oligomer targeting CK2αα' offer significant promise for systemic treatment of prostate malignancy.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109970. · 3.53 Impact Factor