Protein kinase CK2 in human diseases.
ABSTRACT Protein kinase CK2 (formerly referred to as casein kinase II) is an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitous protein kinase. There are two paralog catalytic subunits, i.e. alpha (A1) and alpha' (A2). The alpha and alpha' subunits are linked to two beta subunits to produce a heterotetrameric structure. The catalytic alpha subunits are distantly related to the CMGC subfamily of kinases, such as the Cdk kinases. There are some peculiarities associated with protein kinase CK2, which are not found with most other protein kinases: (i) the enzyme is constitutively active, (ii) it can use ATP and GTP and (iii) it is found elevated in most tumors investigated and rapidly proliferating tissues. With the elucidation of the structure of the catalytic subunit, it was possible to explain why the enzyme is constitutively active  and why it can bind GTP . Considerable information on the potential roles of CK2 in various disease processes including cancer has been gained in recent years, and the present review may help to further elucidate its aberrant role in many disease states. Its peculiar structural features [3-9] may be advantageous in designing tailor-made compounds with the possibility to specifically target this protein kinase . Since not all the aspects of what has been published on CK2 can be covered in this review, we would like to recommend the following reviews; (i) for general information on CK2 [11-18] and (ii) with a focus on aberrant CK2 [19-22].
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ABSTRACT: The ovarian steroid hormone, progesterone, and its nuclear receptor, the progesterone receptor, are implicated in the progression of breast cancer. Clinical trial data on the effects of hormone replacement therapy underscore the importance of understanding how progestins influence breast cancer growth. The progesterone receptor regulation of distinct target genes is mediated by complex interactions between the progesterone receptor and other regulatory factors that determine the context-dependent transcriptional action of the progesterone receptor. These interactions often lead to post-translational modifications to the progesterone receptor that can dramatically alter receptor function, both in the normal mammary gland and in breast cancer. This review highlights the molecular components that regulate progesterone receptor transcriptional action and describes how a better understanding of the complex interactions between the progesterone receptor and other regulatory factors may be critical to enhancing the clinical efficacy of anti-progestins for use in the treatment of breast cancer.BMC Medicine 01/2014; 12(1):32. · 6.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is involved in various cellular events such as proliferation, apoptosis, and the cell cycle. CK2 overexpression is associated with multiple human cancers and may therefore be a promising target for cancer therapy. To identity novel classes of inhibitors for CK2, we screened a natural product library obtained from National Cancer Institute. The quantitative luminescent kinase assay ADP-GloTM was used to screen CK2 inhibitors from the natural product library. The same assay was used to determine cell-free dose-dependent response of CK2 inhibitors and conduct a kinetic study. Docking was performed to predict the binding patterns of selected CK2 inhibitors. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate Akt phosphorylation specific to CK2 and apoptosis effect. The cell viability assay CellTiter-Glo(R) was used to evaluate the inhibition effects of CK2 inhibitors on cancer cells. We identified coumestrol as a novel reversible ATP competitive CK2 inhibitor with an IC50 value of 228 nM. Coumestrol is a plant-derived compound that belongs to the class of phytoestrogens, natural compounds that mimic the biological activity of estrogens. In our study, coumestrol showed high selectivity among 13 kinases. The hydrogen bonds formed between coumestrol and the amino acids in the ATP binding site were first reviewed by a molecular docking study that suggested a possible interaction of coumestrol with the hinge region of ATP site of CK2. In addition, coumestrol inhibited cancer cell growth partially through down-regulation of CK2-specific Akt phosphorylation. Finally, coumestrol exerted strong inhibition effects on the growth of three cancer cell lines. Our study shows that coumestrol, a novel ATP competitive and cell permeable CK2 inhibitor with submicromolar IC50, had inhibition effects on the growth of three cancer cell lines and may represent a promising class of CK2 inhibitors.BMC pharmacology & toxicology. 07/2013; 14(1):36.
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ABSTRACT: Progesterone receptors (PR) are transcription factors relevant to breast cancer biology. Herein, we describe an N-terminal common docking (CD) domain in PR-B, a motif first described in mitogen-activated protein kinases. Binding studies revealed PR-B interacts with dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) via the CD domain. Mutation of the PR-B CD domain (mCD) attenuated cell cycle progression and expression of PR-B target genes (including STAT5A and Wnt1); mCD PR-B failed to undergo phosphorylation on Ser81, a ck2-dependent site required for expression of these genes. PR-B Ser81 phosphorylation was dependent on binding with DUSP6 and required for recruitment of a transcriptional complex consisting of PR-B, DUSP6 and ck2 to an enhancer region upstream of the Wnt1 promoter. STAT5 was present at this site in the absence or presence of progestin. Furthermore, phospho-Ser81 PR-B was recruited to the STAT5A gene upon progestin treatment, suggestive of a feed-forward mechanism. Inhibition of JAK/STAT-signaling blocked progestin-induced STAT5A and Wnt1 expression. Our studies show that DUSP6 serves as a scaffold for ck2-dependent PR-B Ser81 phosphorylation and subsequent PR-B-specific gene selection in coordination with STAT5. Coregulation of select target genes by PR-B and STAT5 is likely a global mechanism required for growth promoting programs relevant to mammary stem cell biology and cancer.Nucleic Acids Research 08/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor