Protein kinase CK2 in human diseases.
ABSTRACT Protein kinase CK2 (formerly referred to as casein kinase II) is an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitous protein kinase. There are two paralog catalytic subunits, i.e. alpha (A1) and alpha' (A2). The alpha and alpha' subunits are linked to two beta subunits to produce a heterotetrameric structure. The catalytic alpha subunits are distantly related to the CMGC subfamily of kinases, such as the Cdk kinases. There are some peculiarities associated with protein kinase CK2, which are not found with most other protein kinases: (i) the enzyme is constitutively active, (ii) it can use ATP and GTP and (iii) it is found elevated in most tumors investigated and rapidly proliferating tissues. With the elucidation of the structure of the catalytic subunit, it was possible to explain why the enzyme is constitutively active  and why it can bind GTP . Considerable information on the potential roles of CK2 in various disease processes including cancer has been gained in recent years, and the present review may help to further elucidate its aberrant role in many disease states. Its peculiar structural features [3-9] may be advantageous in designing tailor-made compounds with the possibility to specifically target this protein kinase . Since not all the aspects of what has been published on CK2 can be covered in this review, we would like to recommend the following reviews; (i) for general information on CK2 [11-18] and (ii) with a focus on aberrant CK2 [19-22].
- SourceAvailable from: utsouthwestern.edu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The PML tumor suppressor controls key pathways for growth suppression, induction of apoptosis, and cellular senescence. PML loss occurs frequently in human tumors through unknown posttranslational mechanisms. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is oncogenic and frequently upregulated in human tumors. Here we show that CK2 regulates PML protein levels by promoting its ubiquitin-mediated degradation dependent on direct phosphorylation at Ser517. Consequently, PML mutants that are resistant to CK2 phosphorylation display increased tumor-suppressive functions. In a faithful mouse model of lung cancer, we demonstrate that Pml inactivation leads to increased tumorigenesis. Furthermore, CK2 pharmacological inhibition enhances the PML tumor-suppressive property in vivo. Importantly, we found an inverse correlation between CK2 kinase activity and PML protein levels in human lung cancer-derived cell lines and primary specimens. These data identify a key posttranslational mechanism that controls PML protein levels and provide therapeutic means toward PML restoration through CK2 inhibition.Cell 08/2006; 126(2):269-83. · 31.96 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The p38 MAP kinase plays a crucial role in regulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1. Blocking this kinase may offer an effective therapy for treating many inflammatory diseases. Here we report a new allosteric binding site for a diaryl urea class of highly potent and selective inhibitors against human p38 MAP kinase. The formation of this binding site requires a large conformational change not observed previously for any of the protein Ser/Thr kinases. This change is in the highly conserved Asp-Phe-Gly motif within the active site of the kinase. Solution studies demonstrate that this class of compounds has slow binding kinetics, consistent with the requirement for conformational change. Improving interactions in this allosteric pocket, as well as establishing binding interactions in the ATP pocket, enhanced the affinity of the inhibitors by 12,000-fold. One of the most potent compounds in this series, BIRB 796, has picomolar affinity for the kinase and low nanomolar inhibitory activity in cell culture.Natural Structural Biology 05/2002; 9(4):268-72.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protein kinase CK2 seems to play an essential role in cellular growth regulation as well as in apoptosis. By using a pair of prostate carcinoma cell lines which are either hormone-sensitive (LNCaP cells) or hormone-refractory (PC-3 cells) we analysed the contribution of protein kinase CK2 to their different growth behaviour as well as to apoptosis. We found the same amount of CK2 subunits in both cell lines although the enzymatic activity of CK2 was much higher in the hormone-refractory cells. These results for the first time show a correlation between the specific activity of protein kinase CK2 and specific growth properties of prostate cancer cells. The antiproliferative flavonoid apigenin led to an inhibition of the CK2 activity in both types of cells but only the hormone-sensitive LNCaP cells responded with apoptosis. Thus, these results demonstrate that a high CK2 activity is dispensable for growth and not necessary for a protection against apoptosis in hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells.International Journal of Oncology 07/2003; 22(6):1263-70. · 2.66 Impact Factor