Roles of reactive oxygen species in CXCL8 and CCL2 expression in response to the 30-kDa antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT The 30-kDa antigen (Ag) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is a strong inducer of innate and adaptive immune responses in human tuberculosis. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in inflammatory signaling as well as antimicrobial defense.
In this study, we investigated the role of ROS in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and secretion of the CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) by human monocytes stimulated with the 30-kDa Ag of M. tuberculosis H37Rv.
Treatment of human monocytes with the 30-kDa Ag activated rapid superoxide generation. In addition, the 30-kDa Ag activated mRNA and protein expression of CXCL8 and CCL2 in human primary monocytes through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent ROS generation. Analysis of MAPK activation (extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38) showed rapid phosphorylation of both subfamilies in response to the 30-kDa Ag. In addition, 30-kDa-induced MAPK activation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 was required for ROS generation, chemokine production, and MAPK activation following stimulation with the 30-kDa Ag. Using highly specific signaling pathway inhibitors, we found that both p38 and ERK1/2 activation are essential for 30-kDa Ag-induced CCL2 but not CXCL8 production in human monocytes.
These results indicate that TLR2-ROS signaling plays a crucial role in the 30-kDa Ag-mediated expression of CXCL8 and CCL2 in human monocytes. In addition, both p38 and ERK1/2 activation are essential for 30-kDa Ag-stimulated CCL2 production by monocytes.
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ABSTRACT: We reported previously that even though immunization with the recombinant mycobacterial 27-kDa lipoprotein (r27) induced a Th1-type response in mice, the vaccinated mice became more susceptible to challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study we show that r27 stimulates naive splenocytes to proliferate. Acylation of r27 was crucial for this effect, since a nonacylated mutant of r27, termed r27DeltaSP, failed to stimulate splenocytes either in vitro or in vivo. Depletion experiments indicated that only B cells were proliferating in a T-cell-independent manner. We also found that r27 is recognized by TLR2, which is involved in mitogenic stimulation. Interestingly, r27 but not r27DeltaSP induced high gamma interferon levels in splenocyte supernatants, whereas no significant interleukin-2 levels were detected. Since B-cell polyclonal activation might aggravate pathogen infection, we asked whether the antiprotective effect of the r27 lipoprotein is associated with its mitogenicity. We showed that, as in the case of r27, immunization of mice with the nonmitogenic r27DeltaSP lipoprotein resulted in increased M. tuberculosis multiplication. We conclude that the antiprotective effect of the r27 lipoprotein must be linked to properties of the polypeptide portion of the lipoprotein rather than to its lipid moiety and its mitogenicity.Infection and Immunity 07/2004; 72(6):3383-90. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) induces vigorous immune responses, yet persists inside macrophages, evading host immunity. MTB bacilli or lysate was found to inhibit macrophage expression of class II MHC (MHC-II) molecules and MHC-II Ag processing. This report characterizes and identifies a specific component of MTB that mediates these inhibitory effects. The inhibitor was extracted from MTB lysate with Triton X-114, isolated by gel electroelution, and identified with Abs to be MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein. Electroelution- or immunoaffinity-purified MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein inhibited MHC-II expression and processing of both soluble Ags and Ag 85B from intact MTB bacilli. Inhibition of MHC-II Ag processing by either MTB bacilli or purified MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein was dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and independent of TLR 4. Synthetic analogs of lipopeptides from Treponema pallidum also inhibited Ag processing. Despite the ability of MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein to activate microbicidal and innate immune functions early in infection, TLR 2-dependent inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein during later phases of macrophage infection may prevent presentation of MTB Ags and decrease recognition by T cells. This mechanism may allow intracellular MTB to evade immune surveillance and maintain chronic infection.The Journal of Immunology 08/2001; 167(2):910-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An increasing body of evidence from animal models, human specimens and cell lines points to reactive oxygen species as likely involved in the pathways, which convey both extracellular and intracellular signals to the nucleus, under a variety of pathophysiological conditions. Indeed, reactive oxygen species (ROS), in a concentration compatible with that detectable in human pathophysiology, appear able to modulate a number of kinases and phosphatases, redox sensitive transcription factors and genes. This type of cell signalling consistently implies the additional involvement of other bioactive molecules that stem from ROS reaction with cell membrane lipids. The present review aims to comprehensively report on the most recent knowledge about the potential role of ROS and oxidised lipids in signal transduction processes in the major events of cell and tissue pathophysiology. Among the lipid oxidation products of ROS-dependent reactivity, which appear as candidates for a signalling role, there are molecules generated by oxidation of cholesterol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids, as well as lysophosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids, platelet activating factor-like lipids, isoprostanes, sphingolipids and ceramide.Current Medicinal Chemistry 06/2004; 11(9):1163-82. · 4.07 Impact Factor