Nitric oxide and iron metabolism in exercised rat with L-arginine supplementation.
ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate whether L-arginine (Arg) supplementation in exercise affects nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in tissues and thus iron metabolism. Rats were assigned to one of four groups: EG (Exercise), SG (Sedentary), EAG (Exercise + Arg), and SAG (Sedentary + Arg). Both EG and EAG swam 2 h/day for 3 months. Both SAG and EAG received 3% Arg supplementation in their drinking water. The results showed that Arg supplementation in exercise (EAG) significantly increased nitrite and nitrate (NOx) concentration in the kidney and BMC, rather than in the liver, spleen and heart. Arg supplementation significantly increased both nonheme iron (NHI) and catalytic iron (CI) content in the kidney, to the extent that the ratio of CI/NHI or storage iron (SI)/NHI was not significantly affected, and significantly decreased NHI content and increased CI content in BMC, to the extent that SI content or SI/NHI was significantly decreased. These findings suggest that Arg supplementation in exercise, possibly through increasing NO synthesis, may change CI formation in the kidney and BMC, and affect iron storage in BMC rather than in the kidney.
SourceAvailable from: Kelvin Edward Jones[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the production of nitric oxide (NO) and supplementation with BH4 improves NO-dependent vasodilation. NO also reduces sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Thus, we hypothesized that supplementation with BH4 would blunt sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 15, 399 ± 57 g) were anesthetized and instrumented with an indwelling brachial artery catheter, femoral artery flow probe, and a stimulating electrode on the lumbar sympathetic chain. Triceps surae muscles were stimulated to contract rhythmically at 30% and 60% of maximal contractile force (MCF). The percentage change of femoral vascular conductance (%FVC) in response to sympathetic stimulations delivered at 2 and 5 Hz was determined at rest and during muscle contraction in control and acute BH4 supplementation (20 mg·kg−1 + 10 mg·kg−1·h−1, IA) conditions. BH4 reduced (P < 0.05) the vasoconstrictor response to sympathetic stimulation (i.e., decrease in FVC) at rest (Control: 2 Hz: −28 ± 5%FVC; 5 Hz: −45 ± 5%; BH4: 2 Hz: −17 ± 4%FVC; 5 Hz: −34 ± 7%FVC) and during muscular contraction at 30% MCF (Control: 2 Hz: −14 ± 6%FVC; 5 Hz: −28 ± 11%; BH4: 2 Hz: −6 ± 6%FVC; 5 Hz: −16 ± 10%) and 60% MCF (Control: 2 Hz: −7 ± 3%FVC; 5 Hz: −16 ± 6%FVC; BH4: 2 Hz: −2 ± 3%FVC; 5 Hz: −11 ± 6%FVC). These data are consistent with our hypothesis that acute BH4 supplementation decreases sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in resting and contracting skeletal muscle.10/2014; 2(10). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12164
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Eccentric exercise is known to disrupt sarcolemmal integrity and induce damage of skeletal muscle fibers. We hypothesized that L-arginine (L-Arg; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate) supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise would diminish exercise-induced damage. In addition, we used N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; NOS inhibitor) to clarify the role of native NOS activity in the development of exercise-induced muscle damage. Rats were divided into four groups: non-treated control (C), downhill running with (RA) or without (R) L-Arg supplementation and downhill running with L-NAME supplementation (RN). Twenty four hours following eccentric exercise seven rats in each group were sacrificed and soleus muscles were dissected and frozen for further analysis. The remaining seven rats in each group were subjected to the exercise performance test. Our experiments showed that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise improved subsequent exercise performance capacity tests in RA rats when compared with R, RN and C rats by 37%, 27% and 13%, respectively. This outcome is mediated by L-Arg protection against post-exercise damage of sarcolemma (2.26- and 0.87-fold less than R and RN groups, respectively), reduced numbers of damaged muscle fibers indicated by the reduced loss of desmin content in the muscle (15% and 25% less than R and RN groups, respectively), and diminished µ-calpain mRNA up-regulation (42% and 30% less than R and RN groups, respectively). In conclusion, our study indicates that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise alleviates muscle fiber damage and preserves exercise performance capacity.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94448. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094448 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: • This study shows:• No effects of combined supplementation of L-arginine and nitrate or nitrate alone on exercise economy• No effects of combined supplementation of L-arginine and nitrate on sprint performance• No effects of combined supplementation of L-arginine and nitrate or nitrate alone on endurance performance• However, plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations with combined L-arginine and nitrate and nitrate alone were significantly elevated compared to placeboNitric Oxide 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2014.10.006 · 3.18 Impact Factor