Since the first publication in 2004, a large number of reports have raised the question of an association between ocular adnexal lymphoma and Chlamydia psittaci. The results of this scientific debate, however, remain controversial. The primary objective of this paper was therefore to raise important questions concerning the interpretation of the different and heterogeneous data on the association between Chlamydophila psittaci and ocular adnexal lymphoma, namely the impact of the methodology used and the epidemiological variability of seroprevalence of C. psittaci antibodies. This paper also provides some methodological suggestions for future studies in the field of chlamydia-lymphoma associations.
"In fact, the frequencies of Chlamydia psittasi positive ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone lymphomas have a large variability across geographical regions and even between series from the same geographical regions (Collina et al. 2012). Therefore , it has been questioned whether this variable association between Chlamydia psittasi and ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone lymphoma reflects methodological biases or true geographical variation (Decaudin et al. 2008). Although the exact role of Chlamydia psittasi in lymphomagenesis remains to be elucidated, doxycycline seems to be an alternative treatment modality in Chlamydia psittasi positive ocular adnexal lympho- mas. "
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) constitute two distinct subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Marked diversities with regard to molecular biology and clinical features are recognized in different subsets of the two lymphomas. Because these differences could be related to the location of the lymphoma, it is of interest to investigate the clinical and histopathological features of DLBCL and MCL involving the ocular adnexal region (i.e. the orbit, eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland and lacrimal sac). Similarly, the lacrimal gland is the only glandular structure within the orbit. Because the lacrimal gland represents an important part of the immunological system, it is of interest to investigate lymphomas involving this location with regard to clinical and histological characteristics.
To characterize the clinical and histopathological features of Danish patients with DLBCL of the ocular adnexal region between 1980 and 2009 and of Danish ocular adnexal MCL patients from 1980 to 2005. Furthermore, the aim of this PhD was to review all specimens from patients with lymphoma of the lacrimal gland in Denmark between 1975 and 2009 to determine the distribution of lymphoma subtypes of the lacrimal gland and to describe the clinicopathological features of these patients.
A total of 34 patients with DLBCL and 21 with MCL of the ocular adnexal region were identified. Twenty-seven patients had lacrimal gland lymphoma, including four DLBCLs and three MCLs from studies I and II. Elderly patients predominated in all three groups, with median ages of 78, 75 and 69 years in the DLBCL, the MCL and the lacrimal gland lymphoma groups, respectively. MCL patients had a preponderance of males, whereas females prevailed among lacrimal gland lymphoma patients. The orbit was the most common site of involvement in DLBCL and MCL. Most DLBCL patients had unilateral involvement, while MCL patients had a high frequency of bilateral involvement. Similarly, localized lymphoma was relatively frequently seen in DLBCL patients in contrast to the predominance of disseminated lymphoma in the MCL group. The majority of lacrimal gland lymphomas were low grade, and the distribution of subtypes was as follows: extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, 10 (37%); follicular lymphoma, 5 (19%); DLBCL, 4 (15%); MCL, 3 (11%); chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphatic lymphoma, 2 (7%); and unclassified B-cell lymphoma, 3 (11%). The overall survival rates at 3 and 5 years for the entire study group of DLBCL were 42% and 20%, whereas 58% and 22% of MCL patients were alive 3 and 5 years after the time of diagnosis. The 5-year overall survival rate of lacrimal gland lymphoma patients was 70%. Concordant bone marrow involvement and the International Prognostic Index score were predictive factors for the overall survival in the DLBCL group in Cox regression analysis. Rituximab-containing chemotherapy was associated with an improved survival rate in MCL patients.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and MCL involving the ocular adnexal region and lymphoma of the lacrimal gland are prevalent among elderly patients. The overall prognosis in DLBCL and MCL was poor, whereas the prognosis for lacrimal gland lymphoma patients was relatively good. Concordant bone marrow involvement and the International Prognostic Index score were independent predictive factors for mortality in the DLBCL group. Chemotherapy containing rituximab significantly improved survival in the MCL group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects the genital and ocular mucosa of humans, causing infections that can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and blinding trachoma. C. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen that is the cause of 12-15% of community-acquired pneumonia. Both chlamydial species were believed to be restricted to the epithelia of the genital, ocular, and respiratory mucosa; however, increasing evidence suggests that both these pathogens can be isolated from peripheral blood of both healthy individuals and patients with inflammatory conditions such as coronary artery disease and asthma. Chlamydia can also be isolated from brain tissues of patients with degenerative neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, and also from certain lymphomas. An increasing number of in vitro studies suggest that some chlamydial species can infect immune cells, at least at low levels. These infections may alter immune cell function in a way that promotes chlamydial persistence in the host and contributes to the progression of several chronic inflammatory diseases. In this paper, we review the evidence for the growth of Chlamydia in immune cells, particularly monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells, and describe how infection may affect the function of these cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that grow in eukaryotic cells and cause a wide spectrum of diseases. They can establish persistent infections, are mitogenic in vitro, promote polyclonal cell proliferation in vivo and induce resistance to apoptosis in infected cells-properties that might contribute to tumorigenesis. In fact, Chlamydophila psittaci (Cp) has been linked to the development and maintenance of ocular adnexal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (OAMZL). In this indolent malignancy, Cp is transported by monocytes and macrophages and causes both local and systemic infection. Cp elementary bodies are viable and infectious in the conjunctiva and peripheral blood of patients with OAMZL. Bacterial eradication with antibiotic therapy is often followed by lymphoma regression. Despite recent advances in the understanding of this bacterium-lymphoma association, several questions remain unanswered. For instance, prevalence variations among different geographical areas and related diagnostic and therapeutic implications remain a major investigational issue. We will focus on clinical and therapeutic implications of chlamydial infections in patients with lymphomas and summarize the current knowledge on the association between Cp infection and OAMZL. Available data on the epidemiology, biology and pathogenesis of this association are analyzed and new investigative and clinical approaches are discussed.
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