Growth inhibition of human tumor cell lines by withanolides from Withania somnifera leaves. Life Sci

Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.
Life Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.7). 11/2003; 74(1):125-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2003.07.007
Source: PubMed


Ayurvedic medicines prepared in India consist of Withania somnifera roots as one of the main ingredients. It is consumed as a dietary supplement around the world. The leaves of W. somnifera were used in the treatment of tumors and inflammation in several Asian countries. We have isolated twelve withanolides such as withaferin A (1), sitoindoside IX (2), 4-(1-hydroxy-2, 2-dimethylcyclpropanone)-2, 3-dihydrowithaferin A (3), 2, 3-dihydrowithaferin A (4), 24, 25-dihydro-27-desoxywithaferin A (5), physagulin D (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), 27-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylphysagulin D (7), physagulin D (8), withanoside IV (9), and 27-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylviscosalactone B (10), 4, 16-dihydroxy-5beta, 6beta-epoxyphysagulin D (11), viscosalactone B (12) from the leaves of this species. Compounds 1-12 and diacetylwithaferin A (13) were tested for their antiproliferative activity on NCI-H460 (Lung), HCT-116 (Colon), SF-268 (Central Nervous System; CNS and MCF-7 (Breast) human tumor cell lines. The inhibitory concentration to afford 50% cell viability (IC50) for these compounds was determined by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Withaferin A and its derivatives exhibited inhibitory concentrations (50%) ranging from 0.24 +/- 0.01 to 11.6 +/- 1.9 microg/mL. Viscosalactone B (12) showed the 50% inhibition at concentrations ranging from 0.32 +/- 0.05 to 0.47 +/- 0.15 microg/mL whereas its 27-O-glucoside derivative (10) exhibited IC50 between 7.9 +/- 2.9 and 17.3 +/- 3.9 microg/ml. However, Physagulin D type withanolides showed either weak or no activity at 30 microg/mL. Therefore, incorporation of withanolides in the diet may prevent or decrease the growth of tumors in human.

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    • "These alkaloids include anaferine, anahygrine, cuscohygrine, and many others including isopelletierine along with some withanolides and withaferins such as steroidal lactones. Similarly, 12 withanolides were isolated by Jayaprakasam et al. (2003) from the leaves of W. somnifera, some of them are listed here such as 25-dihydro-27-desoxywithaferin A, physagulin D, withanoside IV, viscosalactone B "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer, being a cause of death for major fraction of population worldwide, is one of the most studied diseases and is being investigated for the development of new technologies and more accurate therapies. Still the currently available therapies for cancer have many lacunae which affect the patient's health severely in the form of side effects. The natural drugs obtained from the medicinal plants provide a better alternative to fight against this devastating disease. Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae), a well-known Ayurvedic medicinal plant, has been traditionally used to cure various ailments for centuries. Considering the immense potential of W. somnifera, this review provides a detail account of its vital phytoconstituents and summarizes the present status of the research carried out on its anticancerous activities, giving future directions. The sources of scientific literature were accessed from various electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and library search. Various parts of W. somnifera especially the roots with its unique contents have been proved effective against different kinds of cancers. The most active components withanolides and withaferins along with a few other metabolites including withanone (WN) and withanosides have been reported effective against different types of cancer cell lines. This herb holds an important place among various anticancer medicinal plants. It is very essential to further screen and to investigate different formulations for anticancer therapy in vitro as well as in vivo in combination with established chemotherapy.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1027778 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    • "Withania somnifera also known as Ashwagandha, winter cherry or Indian Ginseng has been an important medicinal herb in Ayurveda and indigenous medical systems for over 3000 years. Many studies indicate that Ashwagandha possesses antioxidant [14], antitumor [15], anti-inflammatory [16], immunomodulatory [17], antistress [18], adaptogenic [19], antiulcer [20] and rejuvenating properties [21]. Pteris longifolia is an fern found in Himalayan sub regions as well as around the Gangetic belt of India. "
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic is present in the environment and human all over the world are exposed to small amounts, mostly through food, water, and air. In the developing countries like Bangladesh and India, the high prevalence of contamination, the isolation and poverty of the rural population and the high cost and complexity of arsenic removal systems have imposed a programmatic and policy challenge on an unprecedented scale. Although in India, Arsenic poisoning in ground water in Gangetic basin especially the districts adjoining the river Ganges right from Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar to West Bengal is the major problem of concern. Due to which, major health related problems are arising in the population.To combat the present problem, a pre-clinical study was done on Charles foster rats and sodium arsenite at the dose of 8 mg Kg-1 body weight per day was administered to these rats for 60 days and upon these arsenic pretreated rats, novel plant extracts of Withania somnifera and Pteris longifolia were administered for 45 days to study the antidote effects of these plant extracts. These plants not only eliminated the toxic effects of arsenic but also reversed the normal physiological activity in the animal. Thus, the present study concludes that these novel plants possesses the best bioremedial impact against arsenic induced toxicity.
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    • "), adaptogenic (Bhattacharya and Muruganandam 2003), antitumour (Jayaprakasam et al. 2003) central nervous system (Ahmad et al. 2005), cardiovascular (Mohanty et al. 2004), neuroprotective (Sankar et al. 2007) activities respectively. Among the other parts of this plant, the root has been considered to be the most active part for therapeutic purposes (Mishra et al. 2000; Monograph 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The medicinal value of Withania somnifera root powder on the circadian variations of gentamicin (GEN)-induced nephrotoxicity was explored in this study. The circadian characterstics of 24 h rhythms such as acrophase, amplitude and mesor of renal biomarkers (urea and creatinine), blood glucose, protein and cholesterol were analyzed. In GEN treated rats, elevated levels of circulatory biomarkers-glucose, protein and cholesterol (increased mesor) were observed. In contrast treatment with W. somnifera significantly restored these levels (decreased mesor). Variations in amplitude and ‘r’ values also were observed in between the nephrotoxic rats and other experimental groups. Therefore, we conclude that W. somnifera alter the circadian variations directly with its valuable bioactive compounds, which could pave a way for future investigation for therapeutic approach.
    Biological Rhythm Research 03/2014; 45(2). DOI:10.1080/09291016.2013.805914 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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