Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses
ABSTRACT Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Roland Kays, Aug 13, 2015
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- "Species-specific FIV viruses infect other felids and are distributed throughout the world, yet little is known about their immunological and pathological effects in wild populations (Brown et al., 2010; Carpenter et al., 1996; Franklin et al., 2008, 2007; Olmsted et al., 1992; Troyer et al., 2005). Long term surveillance of non-domestic felids infected with FIV, as well as evidence from free-ranging populations of pumas (Puma concolor) and lions (Panthera leo), suggest that these viruses are ancient, host-adapted, and have little to no negative impact on life-history parameters such as longevity (Biek et al., 2006; Carpenter and O'Brien, 1995; Packer et al., 1999). "
ABSTRACT: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects domestic cats and at least 20 additional species of non-domestic felids throughout the world. Strains specific to domestic cat (FIV(Fca)) produce AIDS-like disease progression, sequelae and pathology providing an informative model for HIV infection in humans. Less is known about the immunological and pathological influence of FIV in other felid species although multiple distinct strains of FIV circulate in natural populations. As in HIV-1 and HIV-2, multiple diverse cross-species infections may have occurred. In the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, three divergent subtypes of lion FIV (FIV(Ple)) are endemic, whereby 100% of adult lions are infected with one or more of these strains. Herein, the relative distribution of these subtypes in the population are surveyed and, combined with observed differences in lion mortality due to secondary infections based on FIV(Ple) subtypes, the data suggest that FIV(Ple) subtypes may have different patterns of pathogenicity and transmissibility among wild lion populations.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 06/2011; 143(3-4):338-46. DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.06.013 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The domestic cat is afflicted with multiple viruses that serve as powerful models for human disease including cancers, SARS and HIV/AIDS. Cat viruses that cause these diseases have been studied for decades revealing detailed insight concerning transmission, virulence, origins and pathogenesis. Here we review recent genetic advances that have questioned traditional wisdom regarding the origins of virulent Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) diseases, the pathogenic potential of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in wild non-domestic Felidae species, and the restriction of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) mediated immune impairment to domestic cats rather than other Felidae species. The most recent interpretations indicate important new evolutionary conclusions implicating these deadly infectious agents in domestic and non-domestic felids.Viruses 02/2012; 4(2):236-57. DOI:10.3390/v4020236 · 3.28 Impact Factor