The structure of ClpB: a molecular chaperone that rescues proteins from an aggregated state.

Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 33.12). 10/2003; 115(2):229-40.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Molecular chaperones assist protein folding by facilitating their "forward" folding and preventing aggregation. However, once aggregates have formed, these chaperones cannot facilitate protein disaggregation. Bacterial ClpB and its eukaryotic homolog Hsp104 are essential proteins of the heat-shock response, which have the remarkable capacity to rescue stress-damaged proteins from an aggregated state. We have determined the structure of Thermus thermophilus ClpB (TClpB) using a combination of X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Our single-particle reconstruction shows that TClpB forms a two-tiered hexameric ring. The ClpB/Hsp104-linker consists of an 85 A long and mobile coiled coil that is located on the outside of the hexamer. Our mutagenesis and biochemical data show that both the relative position and motion of this coiled coil are critical for chaperone function. Taken together, we propose a mechanism by which an ATP-driven conformational change is coupled to a large coiled-coil motion, which is indispensable for protein disaggregation.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The molecular chaperone ClpB/Hsp104, a member of the AAA+ superfamily (ATPases associated with various cellular activities), rescues proteins from the aggregated state in collaboration with the DnaK/Hsp70 chaperone system. ClpB/Hsp104 forms a hexameric, ring-shaped complex that functions as a tightly regulated, ATP-powered molecular disaggregation machine. Highly conserved and essential arginine residues, often called arginine fingers, are located at the subunit interfaces of the complex, which also harbor the catalytic sites. Several AAA+ proteins, including ClpB/Hsp104, possess a pair of such trans-acting arginines in the N-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD1), both of which were shown to be crucial for oligomerization and ATPase activity. Here, we present a mechanistic study elucidating the role of this conserved arginine pair. First, we found that the arginines couple nucleotide binding to oligomerization of NBD1, which is essential for the activity. Next, we designed a set of covalently linked, dimeric ClpB NBD1 variants, carrying single subunits deficient in either ATP binding or hydrolysis, to study allosteric regulation and inter-subunit communication. Using this well-defined environment of site-specifically modified, cross-linked AAA+ domains, we found that the conserved arginine pair mediates the cooperativity of ATP binding and hydrolysis in an allosteric fashion.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.608828 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms at the origin of eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia and binge-eating disorder (BED), are currently unknown. Previous data indicated that immunoglobulins (Igs) or autoantibodies (auto-Abs) reactive with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) are involved in regulation of feeding and emotion; however, the origin of such auto-Abs is unknown. Here, using proteomics, we identified ClpB heat-shock disaggregation chaperone protein of commensal gut bacteria Escherichia coli as a conformational antigen mimetic of α-MSH. We show that ClpB-immunized mice produce anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with α-MSH, influencing food intake, body weight, anxiety and melanocortin receptor 4 signaling. Furthermore, chronic intragastric delivery of E. coli in mice decreased food intake and stimulated formation of ClpB- and α-MSH-reactive antibodies, while ClpB-deficient E. coli did not affect food intake or antibody levels. Finally, we show that plasma levels of anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with α-MSH are increased in patients with AN, bulimia and BED, and that the ED Inventory-2 scores in ED patients correlate with anti-ClpB IgG and IgM, which is similar to our previous findings for α-MSH auto-Abs. In conclusion, this work shows that the bacterial ClpB protein, which is present in several commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, can be responsible for the production of auto-Abs crossreactive with α-MSH, associated with altered feeding and emotion in humans with ED. Our data suggest that ClpB-expressing gut microorganisms might be involved in the etiology of EDs.
    10/2014; 4:e458. DOI:10.1038/tp.2014.98