Spectroscopic study on the binding of a cationic porphyrin to DNA G-quadruplex under different K+ concentrations.
ABSTRACT We have performed systematic spectroscopic titrations to characterize the binding reaction of cationic meso-tetrakis(4-(N-methylpyridiumyl))porphyrin (TMPyP4) with the G-quadruplex (G4) of human telomeric single-strand oligonucleotide d[TAGGG(TTAGGG)3T] (S24), for which special effort was made to examine the TMPyP4-G4 binding stoichiometry, the binding modes, and the conformational conversion of the G4 structure under different potassium ion (K+) concentration. It is found that, in the presence of 0, 10 mM, and 100 mM K+, TMPyP4 forms a complex with the anti-parallel G4 in a TMPyP4-to-G4 molar ratio of 5, 5 and 3, respectively, and the increase of K+ concentration would reduce the binding affinity of TMPyP4 to G4. For the TMPyP4-G4 complex, the end-stacking mode and groove binding mode were presumed mainly by the results of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in the three cases. Most importantly, it is found that TMPyP4 can directly induce the formation of the anti-parallel G4 structure from the single-strand oligonucleotide S24 in the absence of K+, and that it can preferentially induce the conformational conversion of the G4 structure from the hybrid-type to the anti-parallel one in the presence of K+.
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ABSTRACT: G-quadruplex ligands are potential anticancer agents as telomerase inhibitors and potential transcriptional regulators of oncogenes. The search for best-in-class drugs is addressed to identify small molecules able to promote and stabilize G-quadruplex structures. What features should the G-quadruplex ligands possess? They should have selective antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and induce telomerase inhibition or oncogene suppression. One of the main challenges in their design and synthesis is to make the ligands selective for G-quadruplex DNA. These features should be amplified by careful analyses of physico-chemical aspects of G-quadruplex-drug interactions. In particular, the study of the energetics of G-quadruplex-drug interactions can enhance drug design by providing thermodynamic parameters that give quantitative information on the biomolecular interactions important for binding. The main methodologies used to gain information on energetics of binding are based on spectroscopic or calorimetric principles. Spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence and circular dichroism are rapid and cheap methods, but are not sufficient to characterize completely the thermodynamics of interaction. Calorimetric techniques such as isothermal titration calorimetry offer a direct measure of binding enthalpy, in addition to the stoichiometry and affinity constants. With the complete thermodynamic signature of drug-target interaction, dissecting the enthalpic and entropic components of binding is possible, which can be a useful aid to decision-making during drug optimization.Topics in current chemistry 08/2012; · 4.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: G-quadruplexes are higher-order nucleic acids structures formed by G-rich sequences that are stabilized by tetrads of hydrogen-bonded guanine bases. Recently, there has been growing interest in the study of G-quadruplexes because of their possible involvement in many biological processes. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has been proven to be a useful tool to study the energetic aspects of G-quadruplex interactions. Particularly, ITC has been applied many times to determine the thermodynamic properties of drug-quadruplex interactions to screening among various drugs and to address drug design. In the present review, we will focus on the ITC studies of G-quadruplex structures and their interaction with proteins and drugs and the most significant results will be discussed.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 07/2009; 10(7):2935-57. · 2.60 Impact Factor