10th Anniversary review: applications of analytical techniques in laboratory studies of the chemical and climatic impacts of mineral dust aerosol in the Earth's atmosphere.
ABSTRACT It is clear that mineral dust particles can impact a number of global processes including the Earth's climate through direct and indirect climate forcing, the chemical composition of the atmosphere through heterogeneous reactions, and the biogeochemistry of the oceans through dust deposition. Thus, mineral dust aerosol links land, air, and oceans in unique ways unlike any other type of atmospheric aerosol. Quantitative knowledge of how mineral dust aerosol impacts the Earth's climate, the chemical balance of the atmosphere, and the biogeochemistry of the oceans will provide a better understanding of these links and connections and the overall impact on the Earth system. Advances in the applications of analytical laboratory techniques have been critical for providing valuable information regarding these global processes. In this mini review article, we discuss examples of current and emerging techniques used in laboratory studies of mineral dust chemistry and climate and potential future directions.
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ABSTRACT: The heterogeneous reactions of methacrolein (MAC) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) on α-Al(2)O(3) surfaces have been studied in a flow reactor using transmission-Fourier Transform Infrared (T-FTIR) spectroscopy to monitor the reaction progress. Unlike SiO(2) particles where MAC and MVK are weakly physisorbed, the results in this work demonstrate that on c-AlO3 particles MAC and MVK are irreversibly adsorbed and can rapidly react on the surface to form various products such as aldehydes, organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, and even higher molecular weight compounds. The initial uptake rates and initial uptake coefficients for MAC and MVK on α-Al(2)O(3) under dry conditions were determined to explore the reactivity of the particles. Furthermore, the effect of water vapor on the heterogeneous reactions was also investigated as a function of relative humidity. Both the heterogeneous uptake and transformation of MAC and MVK on α-Al(2)O(3) were largely suppressed under humid conditions due to the depletion of surface active sites by water molecules. On the basis of experimental results, atmospheric implications of heterogeneous reactions of MAC and MVK were discussed. Our work suggests that heterogeneous reactions on α-Al(2)O(3) can be important sinks for MAC and MVK as well as possible contributors to atmospheric organic aerosol.Environmental Science and Technology 02/2010; 44(6):2035-41. · 5.23 Impact Factor