Regulation of bovine tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 6 in ovarian follicles during the ovulatory process and promoter activation in granulosa cells.
ABSTRACT To study the regulation of bovine TNFalpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) prior to ovulation, preovulatory follicles obtained after the treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were used. RT-PCR analyses showed that levels of TNFAIP6 mRNA were low before hCG but significantly increased after hCG treatment in follicles. Further analyses and immunohistochemistry indicated that this increase in transcript and protein levels occurred in theca and granulosa cells. To investigate molecular mechanisms involved in TNFAIP6 transactivation, the activity of bovine TNFAIP6 promoter was studied in granulosa cell cultures. Mutant studies identified the minimal region conferring full-length promoter activity, in which activator protein-1 (AP1) and cAMP response element (CRE) elements were required for promoter activity. Overexpression of dominant-negative AP1 and activating transcription factor/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) inhibited forskolin-inducible promoter activity. DNA binding assays demonstrated the importance of AP1 and CRE for activity and identified JunD, FosB, Fra2, CREB1, and CREB2 as being part of the AP1 complex, and FosB, Fra2, and CREB1 for the CRE complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed binding of these proteins with endogenous TNFAIP6 promoter. Treatment with forskolin, prostaglandin E2, and catalytic subunit protein kinase (cPKA) stimulated, but H89, PKA inhibitor peptide, and indomethacin inhibited, TNFAIP6 promoter activity and gene expression in granulosa cells. Collectively, this study is the first to describe that the ovulatory process in cows is associated with a gonadotropin-dependent induction of TNFAIP6 in ovarian follicles and provide the molecular basis through which AP1 and CRE sites and PKA activation played important roles in the regulation of TNFAIP6 in granulosa cells.