Kuper A, Reeves S, Levinson WAn introduction to reading and appraising qualitative research. BMJ 337: a288

Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M4N 3M5.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 17.45). 02/2008; 337(7666):a288. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.a288
Source: PubMed


This article explores the difference between qualitative and quantitative research and the need for doctors to be able to interpret and appraise qualitative research.


Available from: Scott Reeves
    • "S.). The research was conducted from the constructivist position that ''the reality we perceive is constructed by our social, historical, and individual contexts'' (Kuper et al. 2008b). Our perspective was that learning is essentially situated within practice (Lave & Wenger 1991; Wenger 1998; Billett 2002), so doctors construct their learning and professional identity by performing clinical work (Dornan et al. 2007; Teunissen et al. 2007b; Yardley et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Changing the current geographical maldistribution of the medical workforce is important for global health. Research regarding programs that train doctors for work with disadvantaged, rural populations is needed. This paper explores one approach of remote supervision of registrars in isolated rural practice. Researching how learning occurs without on-site supervision may also reveal other key elements of postgraduate education. Methods: Thematic analysis of in-depth interviews exploring 11 respondents' experiences of learning via remote supervision. Results: Remote supervision created distinctive learning environments. Respondents' attributes interacted with external supports to influence whether and how their learning was promoted or impeded. Registrars with clinical and/or life experience, who were insightful and motivated to direct their learning, turned the challenges of isolated practice into opportunities that accelerated their professional development. Discussion: Remote supervision was not necessarily problematic but instead provided rich learning for doctors training in and for the context where they were needed. Registrars learnt through clinical responsibility for defined populations and longitudinal, supportive supervisory relationships. Responsibility and continuity may be as important as supervisory proximity for experienced registrars.
    Medical Teacher 08/2014; DOI:10.3109/0142159X.2014.947941 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    • "A qualitative methodology was employed as it provides participants with scope to discuss personal experiences in depth. It can also achieve a specific and deep knowledge of an issue and has the potential to capture concepts that may not have previously been identified [29-33]. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used as it enables the researcher to explore, flexibly and in detail, an area of concern [31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Guidelines surrounding maternal contact with the stillborn infant have been contradictory over the past thirty years. Most studies have reported that seeing and holding the stillborn baby is associated with fewer anxiety and depressive symptoms among mothers of stillborn babies than not doing so. In contrast, others studies suggest that contact with the stillborn infant can lead to poorer maternal mental health outcomes. There is a lack of research focusing on the maternal experience of this contact. The present study aimed to investigate how mothers describe their experience of spending time with their stillborn baby and how they felt retrospectively about the decision they made to see and hold their baby or not. Method In depth interviews were conducted with twenty-one mothers three months after stillbirth. All mothers had decided to see and the majority to hold their baby. Qualitative analysis of the interview data was performed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Results Six superordinate themes were identified: Characteristics of Contact, Physicality; Emotional Experience; Surreal Experience; Finality; and Decision. Having contact with their stillborn infant provided mothers with time to process what had happened, to build memories, and to ‘say goodbye’, often sharing the experience with partners and other family members. The majority of mothers felt satisfied with their decision to spend time with their stillborn baby. Several mothers talked about their fear of seeing a damaged or dead body. Some mothers experienced strong disbelief and dissociation during the contact. Conclusions Results indicate that preparation before contact with the baby, professional support during the contact, and professional follow-up are crucial in order to prevent the development of maternal mental health problems. Fears of seeing a damaged or dead body should be sensitively explored and ways of coping discussed. Even in cases where mothers experienced intense distress during the contact with their stillborn baby, they still described that having had this contact was important and that they had taken the right decision. This indicates a need for giving parents an informed choice by engaging in discussions about the possible benefits and risks of seeing their stillborn baby.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 06/2014; 14(1):203. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-14-203 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    • "That is why we asked the program directors three open questions that they did not know in advance: (1) describe a successful leadership experience that you have had, (2) what metaphor best suits your leadership, and (3) describe your experiences with teamwork within the teaching team. The program directors were selected according to the method of purposeful sampling, with diversity in terms of specialty, age, gender, type of hospital organisation and size of the teaching team (Kuper et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Program directors have a formal leading position within a teaching team. It is not clear how program directors fulfill their leadership role in practice. In this interview study we aim to explore the role of the program director as strategic leader, based on the research-question: What are the experiences of program directors with strategic leadership? Method: We conducted an interview study using the principles of phenomenography to explore program directors' experiences. In the period June 2012-May 2013, 16 program directors from different hospital organisations were invited to participate in an interview study. Iterative data collection and analysis were based on strategic leadership: (1) developing collective mindset, (2) focusing on collaborative learning and (3) designing teaching organisation. Results: Fourteen program directors participated in this study. We identified four leadership profiles: (1) captains, (2) carers, (3) professionals and (4) team-players. The 'team-players' come closest to integrally applying strategic leadership. For all four profiles there seems to be a preference for developing collectivity by means of providing information. Program directors have less experience with promoting collaborative learning and the designing of teaching organisation is task-oriented. Conclusion: Promoting collaborative learning is the most important challenge for developing leadership within the teaching team.
    Medical Teacher 06/2014; DOI:10.3109/0142159X.2014.923561 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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