CGMP decreases surface NKCC2 levels in the thick ascending limb: role of phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2)
ABSTRACT NaCl absorption in the medullary thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (THAL) is mediated by the apical Na/K/2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2). Hormones that increase cGMP, such as nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides, decrease NaCl absorption by the THAL. However, the mechanism by which cGMP decreases NaCl absorption in THALs is not known. We hypothesized that cGMP decreases surface NKCC2 levels in the THAL. We used surface biotinylation to measure surface NKCC2 levels in rat THAL suspensions. We tested the effect of the membrane-permeant cGMP analog dibutyryl-cGMP (db-cGMP) on surface NKCC2 levels. Incubating THALs with db-cGMP for 20 min decreased surface NKCC2 levels in a concentration-dependent manner (basal=100%; db-cGMP 100 microM=77+/-7%; 500 microM=54+/-10% and 1,000 microM=61+/-8%). A different cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP) also decreased surface NKCC2 levels by 25%, (basal=100%; 8-Br-cGMP=75+/-5%). Incubation of isolated, perfused THALs with db-cGMP decreased apical surface NKCC2 labeling levels as measured by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2) mediates the inhibitory effect of NO on NaCl absorption by THALs. Thus we examined the role of PDE2 and found that PDE2 inhibitors blocked the effect of db-cGMP on surface NKCC2. Also, a nonstimulatory concentration of db-cAMP blocked the cGMP-induced decrease in surface NKCC2. Finally, db-cGMP inhibited THAL net Cl absorption by 48+/-4%, and this effect was completely blocked by PDE2 inhibition. We conclude that cGMP decreases NKCC2 levels in the apical membrane of THALs and that this effect is mediated by PDE2. This is an important mechanism by which cGMP inhibits NaCl absorption by the THAL.
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ABSTRACT: The electroneutral Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters NKCC1 (encoded by the SLC12A2 gene) and NKCC2 (SLC12A1 gene) belong to the Na(+)-dependent subgroup of solute carrier 12 (SLC12) family of transporters. They mediate the electroneutral movement of Na(+) and K(+), tightly coupled to the movement of Cl(-) across cell membranes. As they use the energy of the ion gradients generated by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase to transport Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) from the outside to the inside of a cell, they are considered secondary active transport mechanisms. NKCC-mediated transport occurs in a 1Na(+), 1K(+), and 2Cl(-) ratio, although NKCC1 has been shown to sometimes mediate partial reactions. Both transporters are blocked by bumetanide and furosemide, drugs which are commonly used in clinical medicine. NKCC2 is the molecular target of loop diuretics as it is expressed on the apical membrane of thick ascending limb of Henle epithelial cells, where it mediates NaCl reabsorption. NKCC1, in contrast, is found on the basolateral membrane of Cl(-) secretory epithelial cells, as well as in a variety of non-epithelial cells, where it mediates cell volume regulation and participates in Cl(-) homeostasis. Following their molecular identification two decades ago, much has been learned about their biophysical properties, their mode of operation, their regulation by kinases and phosphatases, and their physiological relevance. However, despite this tremendous amount of new information, there are still so many gaps in our knowledge. This review summarizes information that constitutes consensus in the field, but it also discusses current points of controversy and highlights many unanswered questions.Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 10/2013; 466(1). DOI:10.1007/s00424-013-1370-5 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Na/K/2Cl cotransporter NKCC2 (BSC1) is located in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL). NKCC2 facilitates approximately 20-25% of the re-uptake of the total filtered NaCl load. NKCC2 is therefore one of the transport proteins with the highest overall reabsorptive capacity in the kidney. Consequently, even subtle changes in NKCC2 transport activity considerably alter the renal reabsorptive capacity for NaCl and eventually lead to perturbations of the salt and water homoeostasis. In addition to facilitating the bulk reabsorption of NaCl in the TAL, NKCC2 transport activity in the macula densa cells of the TAL constitutes the initial step of the tubular-vascular communication within the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA); this communications allows the TAL to modulate the preglomerular resistance of the afferent arteriole and the renin secretion from the granular cells of the JGA. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge with respect to the general functions of NKCC2, the modulation of its transport activity by different regulatory mechanisms, and new developments in the pathophysiology of NKCC2-dependent renal NaCl Transport.American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 09/2014; 307(9). DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00432.2014 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the kidney, epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb (TAL) reabsorb NaCl via the apical Na/K/2Cl co-transporter NKCC2. Steady-state surface NKCC2 levels in the apical membrane are maintained by a balance between exocytic delivery, endocytosis and recycling. cAMP is the second messenger of hormones that enhance NaCl absorption. cAMP stimulates NKCC2 exocytic delivery via protein kinase A (PKA), increasing steady-state surface NKCC2. However, the molecular mechanism involved has not been studied. We found that several members of the SNARE family of membrane fusion proteins are expressed in TALs. Here we report that NKCC2 co-immunoprecipitates with VAMP2 in rat TALs and they co-localize in discrete domains at the apical surface. cAMP stimulation enhanced VAMP2 exocytic delivery to the plasma membrane of renal cells and stimulation of PKA enhanced VAMP2-NKCC2 co-immunoprecipitation in TALs. In vivo silencing of VAMP2 but not VAMP3 in TALs blunted cAMP-stimulated steady-state surface NKCC2 expression and completely blocked cAMP-stimulated NKCC2 exocytic delivery. VAMP2 was not involved in constitutive NKCC2 delivery. We concluded that VAMP2 but not VAMP3 selectively mediates cAMP-stimulated NKCC2 exocytic delivery and surface expression in TALs. We also demonstrated that cAMP stimulation enhances VAMP2 exocytosis and promotes VAMP2 interaction with NKCC2.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2014; 289(34). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.589333 · 4.60 Impact Factor