Guggulsterone modulates MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in SENCAR mice.
ABSTRACT Guggulsterone (GUG), a resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, has been used in ayurvedic medicine for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. Recent studies have suggested that GUG may also possess anticancer effects. In the present study, we show that GUG possesses antitumor-promoting effects in SENCAR mouse skin tumorigenesis model. We first determined the effect of topical application of GUG to mice against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced conventional markers and other novel markers of skin tumor promotion. We found that topical application of GUG (1.6 micromol per mouse) 30 min prior to TPA (3.2 nmol per mouse) application onto the skin of mice afforded significant inhibition against TPA-mediated increase in skin edema and hyperplasia. Topical application of GUG was also found to result in substantial inhibition against TPA-induced epidermal (i) ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity; (ii) ODC, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expressions; (iii) phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-jun N-terminal kinases and p38; (iv) activation of NF-kappaB/p65 and IKK alpha/beta and (v) phosphorylation and degradation of I kappaB alpha. We next assessed the effect of topically applied GUG on TPA-induced skin tumor promotion in 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene-initiated mice. Compared with non-GUG-pretreated mice, animals pretreated with GUG showed significantly reduced tumor incidence, lower tumor body burden and a significant delay in the latency period for tumor appearance from 5 to 11 weeks. These results provide the first evidence that GUG possesses anti-skin tumor-promoting effects in SENCAR mice and inhibits conventional as well as novel biomarkers of tumor promotion. In summary, GUG could be useful for delaying tumor growth in humans.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Imtiaz A Siddiqui, Jul 01, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Mukul Das[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggested that plant-based dietary supplements can reduce the risk of liver cancer. Nexrutine (NX), an herbal extract from Phellodendronamurense, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities. In the present study, we have shown the anti-tumor potential of NX against Solt-Farber model with elimination of PH, rat liver tumor induced by diethylnitrosoamine (DEN) as carcinogen and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) as co-carcinogen. The elucidation of mechanistic pathways was explored in human liver cancer cells. Dietary intake of NX significantly decreased the cell proliferation and inflammation, as well as increased apoptosis in the liver sections of DEN/2-AAF-treated rats. Moreover, NX (2.5-10 μg/ml) exposure significantly decreased the viability of liver cancer cells and modulated the levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins levels. NX treatment resulted in increased cytochrome-c release and cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. In addition, NX decreased the expression of CDK2, CDK4 and associated cyclins E1 and D1, while up-regulated the expression of p21, p27 and p53 expression. NX also enhanced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1/2. Collectively, these findings suggested that NX-mediated protection against DEN/2-AAF-induced liver tumorigenesis involves decrease in cell proliferation and enhancement in apoptotic cell death of liver cancer cells.Toxicology Reports 11/2014; 2. DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.11.006
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inadequate efficacy, high toxicity and drug resistance associated with existing chemotherapeutic agents mandate a need for novel therapeutic strategies for highly aggressive pancreatic cancer (PC). Guggulsterone (GS) exhibits potent anti-proliferative effects against various cancer cells and has emerged as an attractive candidate for use in complementary or preventive cancer therapies. However, the knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of GS in PC is still limited and needs to be explored. We studied the effect of GS on PC cell growth, motility and invasion and elucidated the molecular mechanisms associated with its anti-tumor effects. Treatment of Capan1 and CD18/HPAF PC cells with GS resulted in dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition and decreased colony formation. Further, GS treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as assessed by Annexin-V assay and FACS analysis. Increased apoptosis following GS treatment was accompanied with Bad dephosphorylation and its translocation to the mitochondria, increased Caspase-3 activation, decreased Cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and xIAP expression. Additionally, GS treatment decreased motility and invasion of PC cells by disrupting cytoskeletal organization, inhibiting activation of FAK and Src signaling and decreased MMP9 expression. More importantly, GS treatment decreased mucin MUC4 expression in Capan1 and CD18/HPAF cells through transcriptional regulation by inhibiting Jak/STAT pathway. In conclusion, our results support the utility of GS as a potential therapeutic agent for lethal PC.Cancer letters 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.07.037 · 5.02 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since Shh pathway effector, Gli1, is overexpressed in gliomas, we investigated the effect of novel Shh inhibitor SANT-1 on glioma cell viability. Though SANT-1 failed to induce apoptosis, it reduced proliferation of glioma stem-like cells. Apart from canonical Shh cascade, Gli1 is also induced by non-canonical pathways including NFκB. Therefore, a combinatorial strategy with Ras/NFκB inhibitor, Guggulsterone, was employed to enhance effectiveness of SANT-1. Guggulsterone inhibited Ras and NFκB activity and sensitized cells to SANT-1 induced apoptosis via intrinsic apoptotic mechanism. Inhibition of either Ras or NFκB activity was sufficient to sensitized cells to SANT-1. Guggulsterone induced ERK activation also contributed to Caspase-9 activation. Since SANT-1 and Guggulsterone differentially target stem-like and non-stem glioma cells respectively, this combination warrants investigation as an effective anti-glioma therapy.Cancer letters 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.03.025 · 5.02 Impact Factor