Practical detection of t(14;18)(IGH@/BCL2) in follicular lymphoma

Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine (Impact Factor: 2.84). 09/2008; 132(8):1355-61. DOI: 10.1043/1543-2165(2008)132[1355:PDOBIF]2.0.CO;2
Source: PubMed


The t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation is the genetic hallmark of follicular lymphoma. Detection of this translocation can facilitate the diagnosis of follicular lymphoma and can be used to monitor response to therapy and level of residual disease. We herein review and compare practical techniques for detecting t(14;18)(q32;q21), including conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, Southern blot analysis, and polymerase chain reaction-based assay. Emphasis is placed on fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction-based assay, given the applicability of these techniques to fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.

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    • "All used products are compliant with the requirements of the in vitro diagnostic directive (IVDD) 98/79/EC. IHC and molecular analyses were carried out as previously described [17-20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) can involve the paratesticular organs as the primary disease, as primary testicular lymphoma that secondarily involves the paratesticular structures, as the initial site of presentation of occult nodal disease or as the result of disease dissemination. Primary follicular lymphoma of the epididymis in an adult is extremely rare. Little is known about primary adult paratesticular/epididimal lymphomas. We report a rare case of primary follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the epididymis in a 90-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a left scrotal mass. Bone marrow biopsy was negative and computed tomography of the total body revealed no evidence of extratesticular involvement. Macroscopically, the epididymis was replaced completely by a uniform mass. Histologic studies revealed a dense lymphoid infiltrate predominantly composed of centrocytes with admixed centroblasts. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that neoplastic cells strongly expressed CD45RB, CD20, CD79a, bcl-6 and CD10; bcl-2 immunostaining was negative. Molecular studies showed the presence of the monoclonal IgH gene rearrangement and the IgH/BCL2 rearrangement. The lymphoma was classified as follicular lymphoma, low grade, grade 1-2. The patient subsequently underwent radical orchiectomy, did not receive chemotherapy and post-operative follow-up showed absence of disease recurrence. The case of primary follicular lymphoma of epididymis, reported here, is considered a very rare event. It is characterized by clinically indolent localized disease, a good clinical outcome, lack of expression of BCL2 protein and the presence of the t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-BCL2. Even if it is a single case, the primary follicular lymphoma epididymis with t(14;18) could represent either a variant of the previously reported t(14;18)-negative primary paratesticular follicular lymphoma or a distinct biological entity. To report additional cases in the future would be helpful in resolving this question.
    Journal of Medical Case Reports 01/2012; 6:24. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-6-24
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    • "The t(14;18) translocation, generated through by the bcl-2/IgH rearrangement, supposedly occurs in almost all follicular lymphomas (FL) and can be detected by FISH methods or by PCR in primary lymphomas [4] [6]. Moreover, its detection is useful in monitoring the response to therapy and in assessing minimal residual disease in bone marrow [7]. The t(14;18) translocation leads to an overproduction of bcl-2 protein (an inner mitochondrial membrane protein), known as a potent apoptosis inhibitor [4] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The t(14;18) translocation, which leads to an overproduction of the bcl-2 protein, supposedly occurs in almost all follicular lymphomas (FL) and can be detected by FISH methods or by PCR. Its detection is useful in monitoring the response to therapy and in assessing minimal residual disease in bone marrow. Recently it was observed that the translocation could become negative after treatment. The prognostic and predictive significance of this fluctuation is not entirely understood. We intended to find significant correlations among morphological features, histological grades, immunohistochemical findings, and cytogenetical aberrations in malignant follicular lymphomas, in order to identify the prognostic and predictive value of the bcl-2/IgH translocation in these malignancies. We conducted a study on 79 patients with follicular lymphomas. The study was carried out on tissue samples selected from the "Victor Babes" National Institute of Pathology files. These samples were tested by immunohistochemistry and FISH. Results: Most of the cases (65.2%) were low-grade FL (grade 1-2). Approximately 58.8% of cases in the FISH study group presented t(14;18). In 66.6% of the cases with t(14;18), the immunohistochemical reaction for bcl-2 protein was positive. A significant positive correlation was found between the IHC positivity for bcl-2 and t(14;18) detected by FISH (p=0.04). Bcl-2 t(14;18) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma. FISH is an important tool in the diagnosis, treatment and follow up of these malignancies, since the immunohistochemical testing is negative in a significant proportion of cases.
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    ABSTRACT: Technical advances have improved the capacity to detect and quantify genetic variants, providing novel methods for the detection of rare mutations and for better understanding the underlying environmental factors and biological mechanisms contributing to mutagenesis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized genetic testing and remains central to many of these new techniques for mutation detection. Millions of genetic variations have been discovered across the genome. These variations include germline mutations and polymorphisms, which are inherited in a Mendelian manner and present in all cells, as well as acquired, somatic mutations that differ widely by type and size [from single-base mutations to whole chromosome rearrangements, and including submicroscopic copy number variations (CNVs)]. This review focuses on current methods for assessing acquired somatic mutations in the genome, and it examines their application in molecular epidemiology and sensitive detection and analysis of disease. Although older technologies have been exploited for detecting acquired mutations in cancer and other disease, the high-throughput and high-sensitivity offered by next-generation sequencing (NGS) systems are transforming the discovery of disease-associated acquired mutations by enabling comparative whole-genome sequencing of diseased and healthy tissues from the same individual. Emerging microfluidic technologies are beginning to facilitate single-cell genetic analysis of target variable regions for investigating cell heterogeneity within tumors as well as preclinical detection of disease. The technologies discussed in this review will significantly expand our knowledge of acquired genetic mutations and causative mechanisms.
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