Article

Germline EPHB2 receptor variants in familial colorectal cancer.

Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.73). 02/2008; 3(8):e2885. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002885
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Familial clustering of colorectal cancer occurs in 15-20% of cases, however recognized cancer syndromes explain only a small fraction of this disease. Thus, the genetic basis for the majority of hereditary colorectal cancer remains unknown. EPHB2 has recently been implicated as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of EPHB2 to hereditary colorectal cancer. We screened for germline EPHB2 sequence variants in 116 population-based familial colorectal cancer cases by DNA sequencing. We then estimated the population frequencies and characterized the biological activities of the EPHB2 variants identified. Three novel nonsynonymous missense alterations were detected. Two of these variants (A438T and G787R) result in significant residue changes, while the third leads to a conservative substitution in the carboxy-terminal SAM domain (V945I). The former two variants were found once in the 116 cases, while the V945I variant was present in 2 cases. Genotyping of additional patients with colorectal cancer and control subjects revealed that A438T and G787R represent rare EPHB2 alleles. In vitro functional studies show that the G787R substitution, located in the kinase domain, causes impaired receptor kinase activity and is therefore pathogenic, whereas the A438T variant retains its receptor function and likely represents a neutral polymorphism. Tumor tissue from the G787R variant case manifested loss of heterozygosity, with loss of the wild-type allele, supporting a tumor suppressor role for EPHB2 in rare colorectal cancer cases. Rare germline EPHB2 variants may contribute to a small fraction of hereditary colorectal cancer.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
94 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Insertional mutagenesis screens in mice are used to identify individual genes that drive tumor formation. In these screens, candidate cancer genes are identified if their genomic location is proximal to a common insertion site (CIS) defined by high rates of transposon or retroviral insertions in a given genomic window. In this article, we describe a new method for defining CISs based on a Poisson distribution, the Poisson Regression Insertion Model, and show that this new method is an improvement over previously described methods. We also describe a modification of the method that can identify pairs and higher orders of co-occurring common insertion sites. We apply these methods to two data sets, one generated in a transposon-based screen for gastrointestinal tract cancer genes and another based on the set of retroviral insertions in the Retroviral Tagged Cancer Gene Database. We show that the new methods identify more relevant candidate genes and candidate gene pairs than found using previous methods. Identification of the biologically relevant set of mutations that occur in a single cell and cause tumor progression will aid in the rational design of single and combinatorial therapies in the upcoming age of personalized cancer therapy.
    Nucleic Acids Research 01/2012; 40(9):3822-33. · 8.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies attest to essential roles for Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands in controlling cell positioning and tissue patterning during normal and oncogenic development. These studies suggest multiple, sometimes contradictory, functions of Eph-ephrin signalling, which under different conditions can promote either spreading and cell-cell adhesion or cytoskeletal collapse, cell rounding, de-adhesion and cell-cell segregation. A principle determinant of the balance between these two opposing responses is the degree of receptor/ligand clustering and activation. This equilibrium is likely altered in cancers and modulated by somatic mutations of key Eph family members that have emerged as candidate cancer markers in recent profiling studies. In addition, cross-talk amongst Ephs and with other signalling pathways significantly modulates cell-cell adhesion, both between and within Eph- and ephrin-expressing cell populations. This review summarises our current understanding of how Eph receptors control cell adhesion and morphology, and presents examples demonstrating the importance of these events in normal development and cancer.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 12/2011; 69(11):1813-42. · 5.62 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent neoplasms and an important cause of mortality in the developed world. This cancer is caused by both genetic and environmental factors although 35% of the variation in CRC susceptibility involves inherited genetic differences. Mendelian syndromes account for about 5% of the total burden of CRC, with Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis the most common forms. Excluding hereditary forms, there is an important fraction of CRC cases that present familial aggregation for the disease with an unknown germline genetic cause. CRC can be also considered as a complex disease taking into account the common disease-commom variant hypothesis with a polygenic model of inheritance where the genetic components of common complex diseases correspond mostly to variants of low/moderate effect. So far, 30 common, low-penetrance susceptibility variants have been identified for CRC. Recently, new sequencing technologies including exome- and whole-genome sequencing have permitted to add a new approach to facilitate the identification of new genes responsible for human disease predisposition. By using whole-genome sequencing, germline mutations in the POLE and POLD1 genes have been found to be responsible for a new form of CRC genetic predisposition called polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2014; 20(8):1961-1971. · 2.55 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
37 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014