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Vaccine adjuvants: The dream becomes real

ALTA R&D in Biotechnology, Siena, Italy.
Human vaccines (Impact Factor: 3.64). 07/2008; 4(5):347-9. DOI: 10.4161/hv.4.5.6438
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT After about 70 years two new adjuvants have been approved for human vaccines. The first is MF59 developed by the ex-Chiron now Novartis Vaccines and it consists in an oil-in-water emulsion, comprising a low content of biodegradable squalene oil (4.3%) as the dispersed phase, which is stabilized by two non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 85), and a low ionic strength citrate buffer as the continuous phase. The second one, defined as AS04, has been developed by GSK Biologics and consists in 3-0-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) that comes from the cell wall LPS of Gram-negative Salmonella minnesota R595 and is detoxified by mild hydrolytic treatment and purification. It is absorbed on aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate. Thus, new molecules are available to improve the immune response to vaccines also in humans: this is the beginning of a new era in vaccinology.

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Available from: Aldo Tagliabue, Sep 28, 2014
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    • "Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and aluminum hydroxide (alum) are two adjuvants approved for use in human vaccines. MPL, a lipopolysaccharide derivative from Salmonella minnesota R595 [26] [27], is immunostimulatory because of toll-like receptor-4 agonist activity [27] and is licensed for use in a human papillomavirus vaccine. "
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    • "Basically, immunologic adjuvants are substances, administered in conjunction with the vaccine, which stimulate the immune system and increase the host response. The most common adjuvant comprising squalene is MF59, developed by the ex-Chiron now Novartis Vaccines, which consists in an oil-in-water emulsion, comprising a low content of biodegradable squalene oil (4.3%) as the dispersed phase, which is stabilized by two non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 85), and a low ionic strength citrate buffer as the continuous phase [3]. Although the definitive mechanisms supporting MF59 adjuvanticity are still unclear, previous studies (reviewed by Schultze et al.) showed that MF59administration (i) produces a significant influx of macrophages at the site of injection, a process which is associated with enhanced production of chemokines in cells resident at the injection site, and (ii) induces a strong T-cell response to a variety of different antigens, including bacterial toxins, outer membrane vesicles, polysaccharide conjugates, recombinant and viral antigens (e.g., influenza antigens) [4]. "
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