Anthochlor Pigments of Cosmos sulphureus, Coreopsis lanceolata and C. saxicola
From the ray flowers of Cosmos sulphureus, a new anthochlor glycoside, sulphurein, has been isolated, and its constitution established as being the 6-glucoside of sulphuretin (3′,4′,6-trihydroxybenzalcoumaranone). Also isolated from the same plant was coreopsin, previously reported by Geissman and co-workers to be a glucoside of butein (3,4,2′,4′-tetrahydroxychalcone). The structure of coreopsin has now been determined to be the 4′-glucoside of butein. From the ray flowers of Coreopsis lanceolata and C. saxicola, a new chalcone glucoside, lanceolin, has been isolated. Lanceolin is considered to be the 4′-glucoside of lanceoletin (2′,4′,3,4-tetrahydroxy-3′-methoxychalcone). Leptosin, previously obtained by Geissman from C. grandiflora, has now also been obtained and identified from C. lanceolata and C. saxicola. Leptosin is the 6-glucoside of leptosidin (3′,4′,6-trihydroxy-7-methoxybenzalcoumaranone).
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- "The orange petal color in this family has a broad range of color tone; for example, that in chrysanthemum tends to be dark, and that in calendula and marigold is very bright. Carotenoids are mainly responsible for the yellow coloration in this family with the exception of some species, such as dahlia (Dahlia spp.), lance coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata L.) and yellow cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus Cav.), which contain butein and coreopsin, types of aurones, as yellow pigments (Harborne et al., 1990; Shimokoriyama and Hattori, 1953). "
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ABSTRACT: Carotenoids are one of the most important pigments for petal coloration in the yellow to red range; however, knowledge of carotenoids in petals is relatively limited. To better understand flower carotenoids, we analyzed carotenoid composition, the expression of carotenogenic genes, and the relationship between pigment composition and petal color in petals of Compositae plants, including chrysanthemums. We found that petals of yellow-flowered chrysanthemums have a unique carotenoid composition, and that the formation of white petal color in chrysanthemums involves carotenoid degradation catalyzed by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CmCCD4a). We also showed three routes to an orange petal color via carotenoid components in 9 Compositae plants. In addition, we identified (5Z)-carotenoids that contribute orange color formation in calendula petals. In this review, we summarize our studies on carotenoids in the petals of Compositae plants. JSHS
07/2009; 78(3):263-272. DOI:10.2503/jjshs1.78.263
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ABSTRACT: The phenolic constituents of plants are concerned in the quality of plant products, especially in respect of appearance and texture. Many such constituents are concerned in appearance by virtue of their properties as pigments, and many can act as substrates for enzymic browning. Certain phenolic substances are astringent. Lignin is another phenolic constituent which, even in small quantities, markedly increases the toughness of plant cell wall. The chemical nature of the phenolic constituents, and current views as to the pathway of their synthesis in plants, are discussed.Die phenolischen Stoffe der Pflanzen spielen eine Rolle bei der Bestimmung der Pflanzenqualitt, nmlich was Aussehen und Textur anbelangt. Viele von diesen Stoffen geben dem Produkt seine Farbe; andere stellen Substrate fr eine enzymbedingte Brunung. Manche dieser Substanzen wirken astringierend. Lignin ist ein anderer phenolischer Bestandteil, der, selbst in kleinen Mengen, die Rigiditt der pflanzlichen Zellwnde wesentlich verstrkt.Die chemische Struktur dieser Substanzen wird beschrieben, so wie die Wege ihrer Bildung in den Pflanzen.Les constituants phnoliques des vgtaux interviennent dans la qualit des produits vgtaux, principalement en ce qui concerne l'aspect et la texture. Beaucoup de ces constituants donnent au produit sa couleur: certains sont les substrats du brunissement enzymatique. Certaines substances phnoliques sont astringentes. La lignine est un autre constituant phnolique qui, mne en trs petite quantit, augmente considrablement la rigidit des parois cellulaires.Le prsent expos dcrit la nature chimique de ces substances et les notions courantes sur les voies de leur synthse dans les vgtaux.
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 01/1958; 3-4(1):440-455. DOI:10.1007/BF01884074 · 1.98 Impact Factor
The Botanical Review 01/1959; 25(1):1-263. DOI:10.1007/BF02860470 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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