Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents: recommendations for standard assessment: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Youth Committee of the council on cardiovascular disease in the young and the council for high blood pressure research.

American Heart Association, Public Information, 7272 Greenville Ave, Dallas, TX75231-4596, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 7.63). 10/2008; 52(3):433-51. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.190329
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to explore the relationship between currently recommended ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) measures used to classify pediatric hypertension and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in children with true ambulatory hypertension. We performed a cross-sectional survey among 94 children who were consecutively referred for suspected hypertension. The calculated ABP measures were average 24-h systolic blood pressure (24-h aSBP) and 24-h SBP load. The LVMI was estimated by M-mode echocardiography using Devereux's formula and indexed by height(2,7). A total of 35 children fulfilled the criteria for true ambulatory hypertension (elevated office blood pressure, 24-h SBP load >25 %, and 24-h aSBP >95th percentile). Compared with children not fulfilling these criteria, those with true ambulatory hypertension had significantly higher values of 24-h aSBP, 24-h SBP load, and LVMI, as well as body mass index (BMI; P < 0.0001). In a separate analysis of both groups, none of the examined ABP measures adjusted for age, sex, and BMI correlated with LVMI. In those with true hypertension, only BMI was significantly associated with increased LVMI (F = 9.651; P = 0.004; adjusted R (2) = 0.203). The results of our study suggest that pediatric hypertension, as determined by currently recommended ABP (SBP) measures, is not associated with subclinical end-organ damage as defined by the increased left ventricular mass. Therefore, additional factors associated with BMI increase must be considered as risk factors for the development of end-organ damage in hypertensive children.
    Current Hypertension Reports 04/2015; 17(4):534. DOI:10.1007/s11906-015-0534-4 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity in children and adolescents with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), presumably associated with obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. This study was designed to evaluate the metabolic and cardiovascular profile of a group of children with classical CAH from the perspective of cardiovascular risk. Twenty-five CAH patients and 25 healthy controls were included in the study. Metabolic and anthropometric parameters were investigated and compared in these two groups. Subjects in the CAH group were shorter than the controls (p=0.001) and had higher body mass index values (p=0.033). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p=0.027) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) values (p=0.006) were also higher in the patient group. In 24% (n=6) of CAH patients, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring showed arterial hypertension. CIMT was significantly higher in the hypertensive patients than in those with no hypertension (p=0.013). Twenty percent (n=5) of CAH patients had nocturnal hypertension. CIMT was significantly greater in the nocturnal hypertensive group (p=0.02). Mean systolic BP (SBP) and DBP dipping were significantly different in the CAH patients (p<0.001). CIMT correlated negatively with DBP dipping (r=-0632, p=0.037) in these patients. These results provide additional evidence for the presence of subclinical cardiovascular disease in classical CAH patients and its relationship with hypertension.
    Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology 03/2015; 7(1):13-8. DOI:10.4274/jcrpe.1658
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). NO synthase can metabolize L-arginine (ARG) to generate NO and L-citrulline (CIT). Two methylated ARG derivatives, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, are also involved in NO deficiency. Thus it was hypothesized that their combined ratios relate to blood pressure (BP) abnormalities in children with early CKD. Methods and Results: The relationship between these ARG metabolites in plasma was examined using 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) profile in children and adolescents with CKD stages 1-3 (n=44). Approximately 20.4% (9/44) of children with CKD stages 1-3 were diagnosed with hypertension on clinical BP measurement, and 77.3% (33/44) had BP abnormalities on ABPM, including increased BP load, nocturnal BP non-dipping, and nocturnal hypertension. Children with CKD stages 2-3 were more prevalent with abnormal BP on ABPM, and had a higher level of CIT and CIT-to-ARG ratio than those with stage 1. Furthermore, high CIT-to-ARG ratio was significantly correlated with abnormal ABPM profile, including nocturnal hypertension, increased diastolic BP load, and nocturnal BP non-dipping. Higher CIT level was significantly correlated with increased diastolic BP load and overall ABPM profile. Conclusions: Plasma CIT-to-ARG ratio may serve as a useful marker of cardiovascular outcome in children with early CKD. (Circ J 2013; 77: 181-187)
    Circulation Journal 01/2013; 77(1):181-187. DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-12-0602 · 3.69 Impact Factor

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