Posttranscriptional regulation of chicken ccn2 gene expression by nucleophosmin/B23 during chondrocyte differentiation.
ABSTRACT CCN2/CTGF is a multifunctional factor that plays a crucial role in the growth and differentiation of chondrocytes. The chicken ccn2 gene is regulated not only at the transcriptional level but also by the interaction between a posttranscriptional element in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) and a cofactor. In the present study, we identified a nucleophosmin (NPM) (also called B23) as this cofactor. Binding of NPM to the element was confirmed, and subsequent analysis revealed a significant correlation between the decrease in cytosolic NPM and the increased stability of the ccn2 mRNA during chondrocyte differentiation in vivo. Furthermore, recombinant chicken NPM enhanced the degradation of chimeric RNAs containing the posttranscriptional cis elements in a chicken embryonic fibroblast extract in vitro. It is noteworthy that the RNA destabilization effect by NPM was far more prominent in the cytosolic extract of chondrocytes than in that of fibroblasts, representing a chondrocyte-specific action of NPM. Stimulation by growth factors to promote differentiation changed the subcellular distribution of NPM in chondrocytes, which followed the expected patterns from the resultant change in the ccn2 mRNA stability. Therefore, the present study reveals a novel aspect of NPM as a key player in the posttranscriptional regulation of ccn2 mRNA during the differentiation of chondrocytes.
Article: BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling interact to coordinate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During endochondral ossification, two secreted signals, Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), have been shown to form a negative feedback loop regulating the onset of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), another family of secreted factors regulating bone formation, have been implicated as potential interactors of the Ihh/PTHrP feedback loop. To analyze the relationship between the two signaling pathways, we used an organ culture system for limb explants of mouse and chick embryos. We manipulated chondrocyte differentiation by supplementing these cultures either with BMP2, PTHrP and Sonic hedgehog as activators or with Noggin and cyclopamine as inhibitors of the BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling systems. Overexpression of Ihh in the cartilage elements of transgenic mice results in an upregulation of PTHrP expression and a delayed onset of hypertrophic differentiation. Noggin treatment of limbs from these mice did not antagonize the effects of Ihh overexpression. Conversely, the promotion of chondrocyte maturation induced by cyclopamine, which blocks Ihh signaling, could not be rescued with BMP2. Thus BMP signaling does not act as a secondary signal of Ihh to induce PTHrP expression or to delay the onset of hypertrophic differentiation. Similar results were obtained using cultures of chick limbs. We further investigated the role of BMP signaling in regulating proliferation and hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and identified three functions of BMP signaling in this process. First we found that maintaining a normal proliferation rate requires BMP and Ihh signaling acting in parallel. We further identified a role for BMP signaling in modulating the expression of IHH: Finally, the application of Noggin to mouse limb explants resulted in advanced differentiation of terminally hypertrophic cells, implicating BMP signaling in delaying the process of hypertrophic differentiation itself. This role of BMP signaling is independent of the Ihh/PTHrP pathway.Development 12/2001; 128(22):4523-34. · 6.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein B23 is an abundant nucleolar protein and putative ribosome assembly factor. The protein was analyzed for ribonuclease activity using RNA-embedded gels and perchloric acid precipitation assays. Three purified bacterially expressed forms of the protein, B23.1, B23.2 and an N-terminal polyhistidine tagged B23.1 as well as the natural protein were found to have ribonuclease activity. However, the specific activity of recombinant B23.1 was approximately 5-fold greater than that of recombinant B23.2. The activity was insensitive to human placental ribonuclease inhibitor, but was inhibited by calf thymus DNA in a dose dependent manner. The enzyme exhibited activity over a broad range of pH with an apparent optimum at pH 7.5. The activity was stimulated by but not dependent on the presence of low concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+ or NaCl. The Ca2+ effect was saturable and only stimulatory in nature. In contrast, Mg2+ and NaCl exhibited optimal concentrations for stimulation and both inhibited the ribonuclease at concentrations above these optima. These data suggest that protein B23 has intrinsic ribonuclease activity. The location of protein B23 in subcompartments of the nucleolus that contain preribosomal RNA suggests that its ribonuclease activity plays a role in the processing of preribosomal RNA.Nucleic Acids Research 11/1995; 23(19):3974-9. · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: Hypoxic regulation of stability of connective tissue growth factor/CCN2 mRNA by 3'-untranslated region interacting with a cellular protein in human chondrosarcoma cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) can be induced by various forms of stress such as exposure to high glucose, mechanical load, or hypoxia. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the induction of ctgf/ccn2 by hypoxia in a human chondrosarcoma cell line, HCS-2/8. Hypoxia increased the ctgf/ccn2 mRNA level by altering the 3'-untranslated region (UTR)-mediated mRNA stability without requiring de novo protein synthesis. After a series of extensive analyses, we eventually found that the cis-repressive element of 84 bases within the 3'-UTR specifically bound to a cytoplasmic/nuclear protein. By conducting a UV crosslinking assay, we found the cytoplasmic/nuclear protein to be a 35 kDa molecule that bound to the cis-element in a hypoxia-inducible manner. These results suggest that a cis-element in the 3'-UTR of ctgf/ccn2 mRNA and trans-factor counterpart(s) play an important role in the post-transcriptional regulation by determining the stability of ctgf/ccn2 mRNA.Oncogene 03/2006; 25(7):1099-110. · 6.37 Impact Factor