Article

AMEE Guide no 30: Faculty development: yesterday, today and tomorrow

University of the United Arab Emirates, United Arab Emirates.
Medical Teacher (Impact Factor: 2.05). 02/2008; 30(6):555-84. DOI: 10.1080/01421590802109834
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Medical education has evolved to become a discipline in its own right. With demands on medical faculties to be socially responsible and accountable, there is now increasing pressure for the professionalisation of teaching practice. Developing a cadre of professional and competent teachers, educators, researchers and leaders for their new roles and responsibilities in medical education requires faculty development. Faculty development is, however, not an easy task. It requires supportive institutional leadership, appropriate resource allocation and recognition for teaching excellence. This guide is designed to assist those charged with preparing faculty for their many new roles in teaching and education in both medical and allied health science education. It provides a historical perspective of faculty development and draws on the medical, health science and higher education literature to provide a number of frameworks that may be useful for designing tailored faculty development programmes. These frameworks can be used by faculty developers to systematically plan, implement and evaluate their staff development programmes. This guide concludes with some of the major trends and driving forces in medical education that we believe will shape future faculty development.

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Available from: Jacqueline Van Wyk, Aug 29, 2015
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    • "Medical professionals are expected to teach, yet many of them receive little or no formal educational training. Notably, there is an increasing political, public and scientific demand for proof of professionalism in higher education, aiming at quality assurance (QA) and development in medical education – in Germany as well as in other parts of the world (Ministerium fuer Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst Baden-Wuerttemberg 2001; Kultusministerkonferenz (KMK) 2005; McLean et al. 2008; Steinert 2012; Ross et al. 2014). A wide and heterogeneous range of qualifications are in fact available to medical teaching staff in Germany (Lammerding-Koeppel et al. 2006a; Nikendei et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing demand for proof of professionalism in higher education strives for quality assurance (QA) and improvement in medical education. A wide range of teacher trainings is available to medical staff in Germany. Cross-institutional approval of individual certificates is usually a difficult and time consuming task for institutions. In case of non-acceptance it may hinder medical teachers in their professional mobility. The faculties of medicine aimed to develop a comprehensive national framework, to promote standards for formal faculty development programmes across institutions and to foster professionalization of medical teaching. Addressing the above challenges in a joint approach, the faculties set up the national MedicalTeacherNetwork (MDN). Great importance is attributed to work out nationally concerted standards for faculty development and an agreed-upon quality control process across Germany. Medical teachers benefit from these advantages due to portability of faculty development credentials from one faculty of medicine to another within the MDN system. The report outlines the process of setting up the MDN and the national faculty development programme in Germany. Success factors, strengths and limitations are discussed from an institutional, individual and general perspective. Faculties engaged in similar developments might be encouraged to transfer the MDN concept to their countries.
    Medical Teacher 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/0142159X.2015.1047752 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    • "Students associated clinical teaching excellence with positive patient interaction and knowledgeable supervising staff but found insufficient numbers of teaching staff; insufficient, inconsistent or belittling feedback; heavy workload in administrative tasks and stress in meeting procedural requirements were strong concerns in their clinical education. McLean et al. 2008 describe forces driving the introduction of staff development initiatives as either internal (of benefit to the individual / Faculty, for example orientating new faculty members; supporting individuals to improve; encouraging career progression) or external (conforming with University expectations; and accountability requirements). Whilst the external drivers may be the strongest, having potential penalties attached for non-compliance, it is important to ensure that clinical educators see the benefit to themselves of taking part or uptake will be low. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. This project aimed to address development priorities, defined by clinical educators, with a national website and conference, ClinTeach. ClinTeach supports both disciplinary expertise and pedagogical knowledge for clinical educators in work-integrated contexts. Methods. A naturalistic mixed methodology was adopted to address the aim of the project (LeCompte and Preissle, 1993). A needs analysis survey explored educators' view of their development priorities in scholarship, leadership, professional development, and discipline content. ClinTeach website and conference was designed to align to reported priorities for educator development. Educators in three professional fields, across two universities and two faculties evaluated ClinTeach. An evaluation survey evaluated ClinTeach as meeting those priorities. Quantitative: survey reliability was tested by Cronbach's Split Half reliability analysis, 0.79. Data was entered into SPSS™ for analysis (p<0.05 statistically significant). A Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed on matched pair responses from clinical educators about themselves and about faculty priorities. Analytics was used to determine website use. Qualitative: NVivo™ for coding and narrative organisation; iterative theme analysis was completed by three independent assessors. Results. Qualitative evaluation of the conference was simply excellent. WIL educators' priorities in scholarship, professional development and discipline content were met by the conference and website. Website maintenance and engagement emerged as an issue. Conclusion. ClinTeach is an effective model for the enhancement of clinical education by the development of clinical educators, well addressing priorities for educator teaching.
    Australian Collaborative Education Network; 09/2014
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    • "FD in medicine has taken place since the late 1970s stimulated by the growing demand for more innovative teaching (Herrmann et al. 2007). While there has been continued emphasis on teaching in FD there is now broader coverage of other faculty roles such as organizational and leadership development (McLean et al. 2008). Attendance by people from over 70 countries at the 1st international conference on FD in the health professions held in Toronto, Canada in May 2011 reflected an increasing emphasis on FD. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of faculty development (FD) activities for educators in UK medical schools remains underexplored. This study used a realist approach to evaluate FD and to test the hypothesis that motivation, engagement and perception are key mechanisms of effective FD activities. The authors observed and interviewed 33 course participants at one UK medical school in 2012. An observed engagement scale scored participants' engagement while interviews explored motivation for attendance, engagement during the course and perception of relevance/usefulness. Six months later, using the realist framework, 12 interviews explored impact on learning outcomes/behavioural changes, the mechanisms that led to the changes and the context that facilitated those mechanisms. The authors derived bi-axial constructs for motivation, engagement and perception from two data-sources. The predominant motivation was individualistic rather than altruistic with no difference between external and internal motives. Realist evaluation showed engagement to be the key mechanism influencing learning; the contextual factor was participatory learning during the course. Six months later, engagement remained the key mechanism influencing learning/behavioural changes; the context was reflective practice. The main outcome reported was increased confidence in teaching and empowerment to utilise previously unrecognised teaching opportunities. Individual motivation drives FD participation; however engagement is the key causal mechanism underpinning learning as it induces deeper learning with different facilitating contexts at various time points. The metrics of motivation, engagement and perception, combined with the realist framework offers FD developers the potential to understand 'what works for whom, in what context and why'.
    Advances in Health Sciences Education 08/2014; 20(2). DOI:10.1007/s10459-014-9534-4 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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