Article

Conjugation of protein antigen to microparticulate beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new adjuvant for intradermal and oral immunizations.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 3.81). 09/2008; 80(6):1053-61. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-008-1618-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Immunostimulatory glucose polymers known as beta-glucans have been studied for many years. Our laboratory has prepared and characterized a novel microparticulate beta-glucan (MG) from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because MG particles are rapidly phagocytized by murine peritoneal macrophages and induce the expression of B7 costimulatory molecules, we hypothesized that MG could serve as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance specific immune responses. Here, we describe a procedure for conjugating the test vaccine antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA) to MG via water-soluble carbodiimide linkage. Conjugates with up to 0.4 mg of BSA/mg MG were prepared. MG/BSA conjugates were still actively phagocytized by mouse peritoneal macrophages. When used to immunize mice by the intradermal route, these conjugates enhanced the primary IgG antibody response to BSA in a manner comparable to the prototypic complete Freund's adjuvant. Although primary oral immunization with MG/BSA caused no increase in serum anti-BSA antibody titers, booster immunization elicited a significant anti-BSA antibody response. These results suggest that protein antigens can be conjugated to MG via a carbodiimide linkage and that these conjugates provide an adjuvant effect for stimulating the antibody response to the protein antigens.

0 Followers
 · 
66 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Enolase 1 (Eno1p) of Candida albicans is an immunodominant antigen. However, conventional technologies for preparing an injectable vaccine require purification of the antigenic protein and preparation of an adjuvant. To develop novel type of oral vaccine against candidiasis, we generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that display the Eno1p antigen on their surfaces. Oral delivery of the engineered S. cerevisiae cells prolonged survival rate of mice that were subsequently challenged with C. albicans. Given that a vaccine produced using molecular display technology avoids the need for protein purification, this oral vaccine offers a promising alternative to the use of conventional injectable vaccines for preventing a range of infectious diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    07/2013; 69(3). DOI:10.1111/2049-632X.12068
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this research, five groups of compressed wood specimens were investigated, four made from compressed Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) with compression ratios (CR) of 33%, 50%, 67% and 70%, and one without compressing for control purpose. The measurements of moisture-dependent swelling of the specimens were carried out in the R, T and L directions, with typical strain values of 10%, 1.5% and 0.1% respectively corresponding to the CR = 67%. Mechanical property tests of the compressed wood were also undertaken. Material properties obtained cover radial and tangential swelling strain rates, shear moduli in LR, LT and RT planes, Young’s moduli in the L, R, T directions and Poisson ratios in all planes. The Young’s moduli along the longitudinal and radial directions have been increased by over 300% in relation to the CR of 70%.Research highlights► Compressed wood with various compression ratios (CR) was investigated. ► We found moisture-dependent swelling in the R direction as high as17% for CR of 70%. ► The Young’s moduli along the L and R directions are increased by over 300% for CR of 70%. ► We obtained all basic mechanical properties in the principal directions and planes. ► Properties obtained are ready to be used in the finite element modelling.
    Construction and Building Materials 04/2011; 25(4):1718-1725. DOI:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.11.095 · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oral vaccination is the most challenging vaccination method due to the administration route. However, oral vaccination has socio-economic benefits and provides the possibility of stimulating both humoral and cellular immune responses at systemic and mucosal sites. Despite the advantages of oral vaccination, only a limited number of oral vaccines are currently approved for human use. During the last decade, extensive research regarding antigen-based oral vaccination methods have improved immunogenicity and induced desired immunological outcomes. Nevertheless, several factors such as the harsh gastro-intestinal environment and oral tolerance impede the clinical application of oral delivery systems. To date, human clinical trials investigating the efficacy of these systems are still lacking. This review addresses the rationale and key biological and physicochemical aspects of oral vaccine design and highlights the use of yeast-derived β-glucan microparticles as an oral vaccine delivery platform.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 02/2014; 10(5). DOI:10.4161/hv.28166 · 3.64 Impact Factor