Structure of the human Mdmx protein bound to the p53 tumor suppressor transactivation domain.

Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) (Impact Factor: 5.24). 09/2008; 7(15):2441-3. DOI: 10.4161/cc.6365
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Mdmx oncoprotein has only recently emerged as a critical-independent to Mdm2-regulator of p53 activation. We have determined the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human Mdmx bound to a 15-residue transactivation domain peptide of human p53. The structure shows why antagonists of the Mdm2 binding to p53 are ineffective in the Mdmx-p53 interaction.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: One of the hallmarks of cancer cells is the inactivation of the p53 pathway either due to mutations in the p53 gene or over-expression of negative regulators, Mdm2 and/or MdmX. Pharmacological disruption of the Mdm2/X-p53 interaction to restore p53 activity is an attractive concept, aiming at a targeted and non-toxic cancer treatment. Areas covered: The introduction covers the biological role of p53 pathway and its regulation by Mdm2 and MdmX in normal and cancer cells and the current repertoire and development status of inhibitors of the Mdm2/X-p53 interaction for the treatment of cancer. The main part of the article covers patents and patent applications describing small molecule inhibitors of the Mdm2/X-p53 interaction published from 2011 until 2012. Expert opinion: The area of small molecule Mdm2/X-p53 interaction inhibitor development is progressing fast. Several Phase I clinical studies and preclinical programs are now in progress, however, the clinical proof concept has yet to be demonstrated. Multiple available compounds inhibit Mdm2-p53 interaction with nanomolar affinities, but MdmX is still missing such potent binders. Since research points to a complementary mode of Mdm2 and MdmX action, the future compound classes will possibly want to include dual actions versus Mdm2 and MdmX.
    Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 02/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of the interactions between the tumor suppressor protein p53 and its negative regulators, the MDM2 and MDMX oncogenic proteins, is increasingly gaining interest in cancer therapy and drug design. In this study, we carry out molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann and generalized Born/surface area (MM-PB/GBSA) binding free energy calculations on an active compound 3a and an inactive compound NC-1, which share a common pyrrolopyrimidine-based scaffold. MD simulations and MM-PB/GBSA calculations show that the compound NC-1 may not bind to MDM2 and MDMX, in agreement with the experimental results. Detailed MM-PB/GBSA calculations on the MDM2-3a and MDMX-3a complexes unravel that the binding free energies are similar for the two complexes. Furthermore, the van der Waals energy is the largest component of the binding free energy for both complexes, which indicates that the interactions between the compound 3a and MDM2 and MDMX are dominated by shape complementarity. In addition, the analysis of individual residue contribution and protein-ligand binding mode show that the three functional groups on R₁, R₂, and R₃ of the compound 3a can mimic the spatial orientation of the side chains of Phe19, Trp23, and Leu26 of p53, respectively. The obtained computational results suggest that the compound 3a can act as a dual inhibitor of MDM2-p53 and MDMX-p53 interactions, consistent with the experimental results.
    Journal of molecular graphics & modelling 07/2011; 30:167-78. · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molecular docking is widely used to obtain binding modes and binding affinities of a molecule to a given target protein. Despite considerable efforts, however, prediction of both properties by docking remains challenging mainly due to protein's structural flexibility and inaccuracy of scoring functions. Here, an integrated approach has been developed to improve the accuracy of binding mode and affinity prediction and tested for small molecule MDM2 and MDMX antagonists. In this approach, initial candidate models selected from docking are subjected to equilibration MD simulations to further filter the models. Free energy perturbation molecular dynamics (FEP/MD) simulations are then applied to the filtered ligand models to enhance the ability in predicting the near-native ligand conformation. The calculated binding free energies for MDM2 complexes are overestimated compared to experimental measurements mainly due to the difficulties in sampling highly flexible apo-MDM2. Nonetheless, the FEP/MD binding free energy calculations are more promising for discriminating binders from nonbinders than docking scores. In particular, the comparison between the MDM2 and MDMX results suggests that apo-MDMX has lower flexibility than apo-MDM2. In addition, the FEP/MD calculations provide detailed information on the different energetic contributions to ligand binding, leading to a better understanding of the sensitivity and specificity of protein-ligand interactions.
    Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 06/2012; · 4.30 Impact Factor


Available from