Study of impact of laws regulating tobacco consumption on the prevalence of passive smoking in Spain

Unidad Especializada en Tabaquismo, Sub-direccion General de Prevención y Promoción de la Salud, Madrid, Spain.
The European Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.59). 09/2008; 18(6):622-5. DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckn066
Source: PubMed


In 2005, the Spanish parliament passed the Spanish anti-smoking law. This legislation restricted tobacco smoking in public places, including recreation venues (bars and restaurants), but smoking was not completely prohibited in bars and restaurants. The law was enforced in January 2006. With the objective of analysing the impact that this law has had on the general Spanish population, the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) designed and implemented a survey of a representative sample of the general Spanish population on two separate occasions: in 2005 and in 2007 (12 months after the ban came into effect).
Two epidemiological, observational and cross-sectional surveys were performed among a random and representative sample of the general Spanish population, using the Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview system.
In the first survey, a total of 6533 subjects were interviewed, of whom 3907 (59.8%) were non-smokers and in the second, a total of 3289 subjects were interviewed, of whom 2174 (65.9%) were non-smokers. The overall prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) decreased from 49.5% in 2005 to 37.9% in 2007 (22% reduction). The greatest reduction in prevalence of ETS exposure was in workplaces (from 25.8% to 11%, a decrease of 58.8%). Smaller reductions occurred in the home (from 29.5% to 21.4%, a decrease of 27%) and in recreation venues (from 37.4% to 31.8%, a decrease of 8%).
Implementation of the smoking ban resulted in a significant decrease in exposure to ETS.

Download full-text


Available from: Segismundo F Solano-Reina, Mar 18, 2015
  • Source
    • "The impact of introducing SFL in several countries has been examined and evaluated in several ways including: changes in air quality within pubs and bars [6-9], salivary cotinine levels both population wide [10] and amongst bar workers, [11-13] hospital admissions for acute coronary syndromes [14-16] and asthma [17], changes to children’s and non-smokers’ exposure to SHS [18,19] and changes in the smoking habits of smoking hospitality workers as a result of SFL [20]. Evaluation of the health benefits of the occupational group that was most highly exposed prior to legislation, workers in the hospitality trade, has tended to be examined either by self-reported changes in symptoms [12,21-23] or by self-reported symptoms with lung function tests [13,24]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The evaluation of smoke-free legislation (SFL) in the UK examined the impacts on exposure to second-hand smoke, workers' attitudes and changes in respiratory health. Studies that investigate changes in the health of groups of people often use self-reported symptoms. Due to the subjective nature it is of interest to determine whether workers' attitudes towards the change in their working conditions may be linked to the change in health they report. Bar workers were recruited before the introduction of the SFL in Scotland and England with the aim of investigating their changes to health, attitudes and exposure as a result of the SFL. They were asked about their attitudes towards SFL and the presence of respiratory and sensory symptoms both before SFL and one year later. Here we examine the possibility of a relationship between initial attitudes and changes in reported symptoms, through the use of regression analyses. There was no difference in the initial attitudes towards SFL between those working in Scotland and England. Bar workers who were educated to a higher level tended to be more positive towards SFL. Attitude towards SFL was not found to be related to change in reported symptoms for bar workers in England (Respiratory, p = 0.755; Sensory, p = 0.910). In Scotland there was suggestion of a relationship with reporting of respiratory symptoms (p = 0.042), where those who were initially more negative to SFL experienced a greater improvement in self-reported health. There was no evidence that workers who were more positive towards SFL reported greater improvements in respiratory and sensory symptoms. This may not be the case in all interventions and we recommend examining subjects' attitudes towards the proposed intervention when evaluating possible health benefits using self-reported methods.
    BMC Public Health 05/2012; 12(1):324. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-324 · 2.26 Impact Factor

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The large-angle, nonlinear slew of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) is treated with the assumption that the body is rigid. The optimal axis of rotation is first determined and then a time-optimal, bang-bang controller is designed. The controller is implemented in both open-loop and closed-loop form in a numerical simulation using DISCOS. Results are presented which demonstrate controller performance with respect to dynamic coupling compensation, size of the integration time step, and time delay in the response of sensors. This work establishes the theoretical limit of expected performance and provides a foundation upon which a complete, flexible-body control methodology will be developed.
    American Control Conference, 1985; 07/1985
Show more