Article

Oxidative stress plays a critical role in inactivating mutant BRAF by geldanamycin derivatives.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 09/2008; 68(15):6324-30. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6602
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The geldanamycin derivatives 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) are promising chemotherapeutic drugs that inhibit heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) function. Previous studies have shown that 17-AAG/DMAG treatment induces the degradation of mutant BRAF (V600E) and inhibits the activation of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2). We have found, however, that HSP90 inhibition alone is not sufficient for efficient BRAF(V600E) degradation in some cells. HSP90 inhibitors structurally unrelated to geldanamycin, radicicol and novobiocin, while inducing the degradation of the HSP90 client protein RAF-1 fail to induce BRAF(V600E) degradation or inhibit MEK1/2 activation in HT29 human colon cancer cells. Moreover, after treatment with 17-DMAG, the kinase activity of residual, undegraded BRAF(V600E) was also lost. Incubation of cells with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine, partially restored kinase activity and also partially prevented BRAF(V600E) degradation due to 17-DMAG treatment. Conversely, treatment with the ROS producing drug menadione clearly inhibited MEK1/2 and reduced BRAF(V600E). These results suggest that in addition to direct inhibition of HSP90, the antitumor effect of geldanamycin and its derivatives is also mediated though the production of ROS, which may directly inactivate tumorigenic mutant BRAF(V600E).

Full-text

Available from: Masahiro Inoue, Apr 27, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
149 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Geldanamycin (GM) is an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) with potent and broad anti-cancer properties, but with unacceptable levels of hepatotoxicity. These characteristics have led to the devise of a range of less toxic GM structural analogues. Redox properties and thiol reactivity are central to the therapeutic and toxicologic effects of quinones, and the question arises as to whether the toxicity of GM and its analogues relates to the reduction potential of the quinone. Using pulse radiolysis, we have previously determined the one-electron reduction potentials (vs. the normal hydrogen electrode [NHE]) at pH 7.0 of GM, 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), and 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) to be −62±7 mV, −194±6 mV, and −273±8 mV, respectively. These experimental results are now used to establish a predictive relationship for the reduction potential of GM analogues based on the Hammett para substituent constants. These values correlate well with the drugs effects in vivo. We show that cytotoxicity of the benzoquinone ansamycin increases as its respective reduction potential increases, even after blocking of the C19-position from nucleophilic addition. We conclude that the cytotoxicity is directly related to the reduction potential of the quinone/semiquinone couple.
    Israel Journal of Chemistry (Online) 03/2014; 54(3). DOI:10.1002/ijch.201300094 · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is expressed as part of the molecular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mediates protein folding within the cell. GRP78 is also an important biomarker of cancer progression and the therapeutic response of patients with different cancer types. However, the role of GRP78 in the cytotoxic effect of 17-DMAG in colon cancer cells remains unclear. GRP78 expression was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA). The anticancer effects of 17-DMAG were assessed by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, a flow cytometric cell-cycle analysis, and an Annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) apoptotic assay. We found that HT-29 cells expressed a lower level of GRP78 compared with DLD-1 cells. The MTT assay revealed that HT-29 cells were more sensitive to 17-DMAG treatment than DLD-1 cells. GRP78 knock down (GRP78KD) cells demonstrated an increased sensitivity to 17-DMAG treatment compared with the scrambled control cells. Based on the cell-cycle analysis and Annexin V-PI apoptotic assay, apoptosis dramatically increased in GRP78KD cells compared with scrambled control DLD-1 cells after these cells were treated with 17-DMAG. Finally, we observed a decrease in the level of Bcl-2 and an increase in the levels of Bad and Bax in GRP78KD cells treated with 17-DMAG. These results are consistent with an increased sensitivity to 17-DMAG after knock down of GRP78. The level of GRP78 expression may determine the therapeutic efficacy of 17-DMAG against colon cancer cells.
    Tumor Biology 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s13277-015-3076-0 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Source