Vitamin D Deficiency in Children and Its Management: Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations

Pediatric Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Units, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 09/2008; 122(2):398-417. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-1894
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Given the recent spate of reports of vitamin D deficiency, there is a need to reexamine our understanding of natural and other sources of vitamin D, as well as mechanisms whereby vitamin D synthesis and intake can be optimized. This state-of-the-art report from the Drug and Therapeutics Committee of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society was aimed to perform this task and also reviews recommendations for sun exposure and vitamin D intake and possible caveats associated with these recommendations.

Download full-text


Available from: Anna Petryk, Jul 06, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD.
    Journal of Immunology Research 01/2015; 2015:1-7. DOI:10.1155/2015/257879 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The most safe and effective dose of vitamin D supplementation for healthy adolescents is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 200 IU versus 1,000 IU of daily vitamin D3 for supplementation in healthy adolescents with baseline vitamin D sufficiency. We conducted a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Fifty-six subjects, ages 11-19 years, with baseline vitamin D sufficiency received 1,000 IU or 200 IU of daily vitamin D3 for 11 weeks. Compliance was assessed using MEMS6 Trackcaps and pill counts. Fifty-three subjects completed the clinical trial. Subjects in the two treatment arms were similar in terms of age, race, gender, body mass index, and dietary calcium and vitamin D intake. Serum 25(OH)D level in the 200 IU treatment arm was 28.1 ± 6.2 ng/mL at baseline (mean ± SD) and 28.9 ± 7.0 ng/mL at follow-up. In the 1,000 IU treatment arm, 25(OH)D levels were 29.0 ± 7.3 and 30.1 ± 6.6 at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Mean change in 25(OH)D level did not differ significantly between treatment arms (p = .87), nor did mean change in parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, bone turnover markers, fasting glucose, or fasting insulin. In healthy adolescents with baseline vitamin D sufficiency, supplementation with vitamin D3 doses of 200 and 1,000 IU for 11 weeks did not increase serum 25(OH)D levels, with no significant difference observed between treatment arms.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 05/2013; 52(5):592-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.10.270 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obese adults are frequently vitamin D deficient before bariatric surgery; whether similar abnormalities exist in morbidly obese adolescents is unknown. To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in morbidly obese adolescents. Cross-sectional study of preoperative laboratory measures from 236 adolescents evaluated for bariatric surgery. The group (N = 219 with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels; 76 boys, 143 girls; 15.9 ± 1.2 years; 43% Caucasian, 35% Hispanic, and 15% African American) had mean BMI of 47.6 ± 8.1 kg/m(2). 25OHD levels were deficient (<20 ng/mL) in 53%; 8% had severe deficiency (<10 ng/mL); only 18% of patients were replete (>30 ng/mL). 25OHD levels were inversely associated with BMI (r = -0.28, < 0.0001) and PTH levels (r = -0.24, P = 0.0003). Race was the strongest predictor of 25OHD (P < 0.002); 82% of African Americans, 59% of Hispanics, and 37% of Caucasians were deficient. African American race, BMI, and PTH explained 21% of the variance in 25OHD (P < 0.0001). Most adolescents presenting for bariatric surgery have suboptimal vitamin D levels, with African Americans and those with higher BMIs at greatest risk for vitamin D deficiency. All morbidly obese adolescents should be screened for vitamin D deficiency before bariatric procedures.
    02/2013; 2013. DOI:10.1155/2013/284516