Nonspecific interaction of prefibrillar amyloid aggregates with glutamatergic receptors results in Ca2+ increase in primary neuronal cells.
ABSTRACT It is widely reported that the Ca(2+) increase following nonspecific cell membrane permeabilization is among the earliest biochemical modifications in cells exposed to toxic amyloid aggregates. However, more recently receptors with Ca(2+) channel activity such as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA), ryanodine, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors have been proposed as mediators of the Ca(2+) increase in neuronal cells challenged with beta-amyloid peptides. We previously showed that prefibrillar aggregates of proteins not associated with amyloid diseases are toxic to exposed cells similarly to comparable aggregates of disease-associated proteins. In particular, prefibrillar aggregates of the prokaryotic HypF-N were shown to be toxic to different cultured cell lines by eliciting Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species increases. This study was aimed at assessing whether NMDA and AMPA receptor activations could be considered a generic feature of cell interaction with amyloid aggregates rather than a specific effect of some aggregated protein. Therefore, we investigated whether NMDA and AMPA receptors were involved in the Ca(2+) increase following exposure of rat cerebellar granule cells to HypF-N prefibrillar aggregates. We found that the intracellular Ca(2+) increase was associated with the early activation of NMDA and AMPA receptors, although some nonspecific membrane permeabilization was also observed at longer times of exposure. This result matched a significant co-localization of the aggregates with both receptors on the plasma membrane. Our data support the possibility that glutamatergic channels are generic sites of interaction with the cell membrane of prefibrillar aggregates of different peptides and proteins as well as the key structures responsible for the resulting early membrane permeabilization to Ca(2+).
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we discuss amyloidogenic proteins, their misfolding, resulting structures, and interactions with membranes, which lead to membrane damage and subsequent cell death. Many of these proteins are implicated in serious illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Misfolding of amyloidogenic proteins leads to the formation of polymorphic oligomers and fibrils. Oligomeric aggregates are widely thought to be the toxic species, however, fibrils also play a role in membrane damage. We focus on the structure of these aggregates and their interactions with model membranes. Study of interactions of amlyoidogenic proteins with model and natural membranes has shown the importance of the lipid bilayer in protein misfolding and aggregation and has led to the development of several models for membrane permeabilization by the resulting amyloid aggregates. We discuss several of these models: formation of structured pores by misfolded amyloidogenic proteins, extraction of lipids, interactions with receptors in biological membranes, and membrane destabilization by amyloid aggregates perhaps analogous to that caused by antimicrobial peptides.03/2013; 4(1):20-55. DOI:10.3390/biom4010020
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ABSTRACT: Many degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's involve proteins that have a tendency to misfold and aggregate eventually forming amyloid fibers. This review describes the use of monolayers, bilayers, supported membranes, and vesicles as model systems that have helped elucidate the mechanisms and consequences of the interactions between amyloidogenic proteins and membranes. These are twofold: membranes favor the formation of amyloid structures and these induce damage in those membranes. We describe studies that show how interfaces, especially charged ones, favor amyloidogenic protein aggregation by several means. First, surfaces increase the effective protein concentration reducing a three-dimensional system to a two-dimensional one. Second, charged surfaces allow electrostatic interactions with the protein. Anionic lipids as well as rafts, rich in cholesterol and gangliosides, prove to play an especially important role. Finally, these amphipathic systems also offer a hydrophobic environment favoring conformational changes, oligomerization, and eventual formation of mature fibers. In addition, we examine several models for membrane permeabilization: protein pores, leakage induced by extraction of lipids, chaotic pores, and membrane tension, presenting illustrative examples of experimental evidence in support of these models. The picture that emerges from recent work is one where more than one mechanism is in play. Which mechanism prevails depends on the protein, its aggregation state, and the lipid environment in which the interactions occur.Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.cis.2013.10.015 · 8.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mediterranean and Asian diets are currently considered as the most healthy traditional feeding habits effective against risk of age-associated, particularly cardiovascular and neurodegenerative, diseases. A common feature of these two regimens is the abundance of foods and beverages of plant origin (green tea, extra virgin olive oil, red wine, spices, berries, and aromatic herbs) that are considered responsible for the observed beneficial effects. Epidemiological data suggest that the phenolic component remarkably enriched in these foods plays an important role in reducing the incidence of amyloid diseases, pathological conditions associated to tissue deposition of toxic protein aggregates responsible for progressive functional deterioration. Great effort is being spent to provide knowledge on the effects of several natural phenols in this context, moving from the test tube to animal models and, more slowly, to the patient's bed. An emerging feature that makes these molecules increasingly attractive for amyloid disease prevention and therapy is their wide spectrum of activity: recent pieces of evidence suggest that they can inhibit the production of amyloidogenic peptides from precursors, increase antioxidant enzyme activity, activate autophagy and reduce inflammation. Our concept should than shift from considering natural phenols simply as antioxidants or, at the best, as amyloid aggregation inhibitors, to describing them as potentially multitargeting drugs. A main concern is the low bioavailability of such compounds and efforts aimed at improving it are underway, with encapsulation strategies being the most promising ones. © 2014 BioFactors, 00(00):000–000, 2014BioFactors 09/2014; 40(5). DOI:10.1002/biof.1171 · 3.09 Impact Factor