Isolation and pathotyping of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Indian poultry.
ABSTRACT A total of 1246 faecal and tissue samples collected/received from 119 farms located in various states of India were processed for isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIV) during 2003-2004 as part of a program to monitor AIV infection in Indian poultry population. Avian influenza virus was isolated for the first time in India from poultry farms with history of drop in egg production, respiratory illness and increased mortality in Haryana state. A total of 29 H9N2 AIV isolates were obtained from the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, and Orissa and Union Territory Delhi. Subtyping was done by HI, RT-PCR and neuraminidase inhibition assay. Pathotyping of six representative isolates by intravenous pathogenicity index (0.0/3.0) in 6-8 weeks old chicken, trypsin dependency in cell culture and HA cleavage site analysis (335RSSR*GLF341) confirmed that these isolates are low pathogenic. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the HA gene showed that the Indian isolates are very closely related (95.0-99.6%) and shared a homology of 92-96% with H9N2 isolates from Germany and Asian regions other than that of mainland China. Deduced amino acid sequences showed the presence of L226 (234 in H9 numbering) which indicates a preference to binding of alpha (2-6) sialic acid receptors. Two of the six isolates had 7 glycosylation sites in the HA1 cleaved protein and the remaining four had 5 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they share a common ancestor Qa/HK/G1/97 isolate which had contributed internal genes of H5N1 virus circulating in Vietnam. Further characterization of Indian H9N2 isolates is required to understand their nature and evolution.
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ABSTRACT: The present study reports isolation and characterization of H9N2 virus responsible for disease characterized by symptoms including difficulty in respiration, head swelling, nasal discharge, reduced feed intake, cyanotic comb, reduced egg production and mortality. Virus isolation from allantoic fluid inoculated with tracheal aspirates and whole genome sequencing of two isolates were performed on an Ion-Torrent sequencer. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two H9N2 isolates are reassortant viruses showing a G1-like lineage for HA, NA and NP, a Hok/49/98-like lineage for PB1 and PA, PK/UDL-01/05-like lineage for PB2, IL/90658/00-like lineage for NS and an unknown lineage for M gene. Analyses of the HA cleavage site showed a sequence of (333PARSSR↓GL340) indicating that these isolates are of low pathogenicity. Isolate 2 has leucine at amino acid position 226, a substitution which is associated with mammalian adaptation of avian influenza virus. Isolate 1 has the S31N substitution in the M2 gene that has been associated with drug resistance as well as R57Q and C241Y mutations in the NP gene which are associated with human adaptation. The result reported here gives deep insight in to H9N2 viruses circulating in domestic poultry of India and supports the policy of active efforts to control and manage H9N2 infections in Indian poultry.SpringerPlus 01/2014; 3:196.
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ABSTRACT: Since the end of 2009, H9N2 has emerged in Tunisia causing several epidemics in poultry industry resulting in major economic losses. To monitor variations of Influenza viruses during the outbreaks, Tunisian H9N2 virus isolates were identified and genetically characterized. The genomic RNA segments of Tunisian H9N2 strains were subjected to RT-PCR amplifications followed by sequencing analysis. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that A/Ck/TUN/12/10 and A/Migratory Bird/TUN/51/10 viruses represent multiple reassortant lineages, with genes coming from Middle East strains, and share the common ancestor Qa/HK/G1/97 isolate which has contributed internal genes of H5N1 virus circulating in Asia. Some of the internal genes seemed to have undergone broad reassortments with other influenza subtypes. Deduced amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene showed the presence of additional glycosylation site and Leu at position 234 indicating to binding preference to α (2, 6) sialic acid receptors, indicating their potential to directly infect humans. The Hemagglutinin cleavage site motif sequence is 333 PARSSR*GLF341 which indicates the low pathogenicity nature of the Tunisian H9N2 strains and the potential to acquire the basic amino acids required for the highly pathogenic strains. Their neuraminidase protein (NA) carried substitutions in the hemadsorption (HB) site, similar to those of other avian H9N2 viruses from Asia, Middle Eastern and human pandemic H2N2 and H3N2 that bind to α -2, 6 -linked receptors. Two avian virus-like aa at positions 661 (A) and 702 (K), similar to H5N1 strains, were identified in the polymerase (PB2) protein. Likewise, matrix (M) protein carried some substitutions which are linked with increasing replication in mammals. In addition, H9N2 strain recently circulating carried new polymorphism, "GSEV" PDZ ligand (PL) C-terminal motif in its non structural (NS) protein.Two new aa substitutions (I) and (V), that haven't been previously reported, were identified in the polymerase and matrix proteins, respectively. Nucleoprotein and non-structural protein carried some substitutions similar to H5N1 strains. Considering these new mutations, the molecular basis of tropism, host responses and enhanced virulence will be defined and studied. Otherwise, Continuous monitoring of viral genetic changes throughout the year is warranted to monitor variations of Influenza viruses in the field.Virology Journal 01/2011; 8:467. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Events during the period extending from 2006 to 2009 have been overshadowed by the ongoing panzootic with H5N1 (highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza [HPNAI]), which has afflicted 63 countries and three continents (Africa, Asia, and Europe) during the review period. Two countries, Indonesia and Egypt, have formally declared the disease endemic to the World Organisation for Animal Health, while others have used a variety of approaches aimed at containment, control, and eradication. These approaches have achieved variable success, but in 2009 several countries that had previously declared themselves free of HPNAI became reinfected. In addition, the virus continued to be detected widely in wild bird populations, even in the absence of local poultry outbreaks. Other poultry outbreaks with HPNAI have been reported in South Africa (in ostriches with H5N2 in 2006) and the U.K. (in chickens with H7N7 in 2008). Also notable was the report of H5N2 HPNAI in wild bird populations in North Africa in 2007. Improved active surveillance systems and vigilance for notifiable avian influenza (NAI) in domestic poultry, especially in host groupings, in which clinical signs following infection may be inapparent (e.g., domestic waterfowl), have inevitably resulted in the detection and reporting of other activity. Low pathogenicity NAI H5 or H7 viruses were isolated/detected from poultry in Belgium (H5N2, 2008), Chinese Taipei (H5N2, 2008), Denmark (H5N2, 2006; H7N1, 2008), France (H5N2, 2007), Germany (H7N3, 2008), Italy (H7N7, 2006; H7N3, 2007-08), the Netherlands (H7N7, 2006), Portugal (H5N2, 2007; H5N3, 2007), the Republic of Korea (H7N8, 2007; H5N2, 2008), and the U.K. (H7N3, 2006; H7N2, 2007). In addition, there has also been significant activity with H6 and H9 viruses in poultry populations, especially in Asia.Avian Diseases 03/2010; 54(1 Suppl):187-93. · 1.73 Impact Factor