Residential runoff as a source of pyrethroid pesticides to urban creeks

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140, USA.
Environmental Pollution (Impact Factor: 4.14). 09/2008; 157(1):287-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2008.06.037
Source: PubMed


Pyrethroid pesticides occur in urban creek sediments at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive aquatic life. To better understand the source of these residues, runoff from residential neighborhoods around Sacramento, California was monitored over the course of a year. Pyrethroids were present in every sample. Bifenthrin, found at up to 73 ng/L in the water and 1211 ng/g on suspended sediment, was the pyrethroid of greatest toxicological concern, with cypermethrin and cyfluthrin of secondary concern. The bifenthrin could have originated either from use by consumers or professional pest controllers, though the seasonal pattern of discharge from the drain was more consistent with professional use as the dominant source. Stormwater runoff was more important than dry season irrigation runoff in transporting pyrethroids to urban creeks. A single intense storm was capable of discharging as much bifenthrin to an urban creek in 3h as that discharged over 6 months of irrigation runoff.

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    • "In recent years, the use of cypermethrin has been increased sharply in the agricultural field for crop protection (Weston et al., 2009). As a result, cypermethrin residues were found in most of the tested samples (sediment) from urban creek (Riederer et al., 2010; Weston et al., 2009, 2011). Hence, the presence of cypermethrin in the environment is of global concern. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin is an pollutant of environment because of its widespread use, toxicity and persistence. Biodegradation of such chemicals by microorganisms may provide effective method for their detoxication. we have investigated the degradation of cypermethrin by immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. strain CPN 1 immobilized in various matrices such as, polyurethane foam (PUF), polyacrylamide, sodium alginate and agar. The optimum temperature and pH for the degradation of cypermethrin by immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. were found to be 30 ˚C and 7.0. The rate of degradation of 10 and 20 mM of cypermethrin by the freely suspended cells were compared with that by immobilized cells in batches and semi-continuous with shaken cultures. PUF-immobilized cells showed higher rate of degradation of 10 mM and 20 mM cypermethrin than freely suspended cells and cells immobilized in other matrices. The PUF-immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. strain CPN 1 could be reused for more than 32 cycles without loosing their degradation capacity. Thus the PUF-immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. could potentially be used in the bioremediation of cypermetrin contamined water.
    Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 08/2015; 46(3):667-672. DOI:10.1590/S1517-838246320130557 · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    • "Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) have been widely used in agriculture due to their potent toxic activity against various insect pests, contributing to more than 25% of world insecticide sales (Chen et al., 2013b; Weston et al., 2009). Due to its high specificity to insect pests and low mammalian toxicity, SPs have become the ideal substitutes of organophosphates (OPs) on crops, homes, gardens and disease control (Miyamoto, 1976; Elliott and Janes, 1978). "
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic pyrethroid fenpropathrin has received increasing attention because of its environmental contamination and toxic effects on non-target organisms including human beings. Here we report the degradation characteristics of cell-free extracts from fenpropathrin-degrading strain Bacillus cereus ZH-3 and its potential for pyrethroid bioremediation in soils. 50mg·L(-1) of fenpropathrin was decreased to 20.6mg·L(-1) by the enzymatic extracts (869.4mg·L(-1)) within 30min. Kinetic constants Km and Vm were determined to be 1006.7nmol·L(-1) and 56.8nmol·min(-1), respectively. Degradation products were identified as 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde, α-hydroxy-3-phenoxy-benzeneacetonitrile and phenol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to degradation of fenpropathrin, the cell-free extracts could degrade other pyrethroids including beta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin. Additionally, the reaction conditions were optimized. In the sterile and non-sterile soils, 50mg·kg(-1) of fenpropathrin was reduced to 15.3 and 13.9mg·L(-1) in 1d, respectively. Sprayed 100 and 300mg·kg(-1) of fenpropathrin emulsifiable concentrate (EC), up to 84.6% and 92.1% of soil fenpropathrin were removed from soils within 7d, respectively. Taken together, our results depict the biodegradation characteristics of cell-free extracts from B. cereus ZH-3, highlight its promising potential in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils and also provide new insights into the utilization of degrading microbes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Science of The Total Environment 04/2015; 523:50-58. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.124 · 4.10 Impact Factor
    • "To realistically quantify the loss of glyphosate and investigate the wide range of influencing factors in urban areas, concurrent data are required , including rainfall, discharge, glyphosate application, spatial information , and concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA. Such concurrent data were typically not fully covered by previous studies, due to the spatial extents and objectives of interest (Kolpin et al., 2004; Botta et al., 2009; Weston et al., 2009; Hanke et al., 2010; Wittmer et al., 2011; Gan et al., 2012; Glozier et al., 2012), except for a UK residential glyphosate study (Ramwell et al., 2014). However, the UK study sampled only four rainfall events and had limited reflection on the hydrological component. "
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    ABSTRACT: Urban runoff can be a significant source of pesticides in urban streams. However, quantification of this source has been difficult because pesticide use by urban residents (e.g., on pavements or in gardens) is often unknown, particularly at the scale of a residential catchment. Proper quantification and characterization of pesticide loss via urban runoff require sound information on the use and occurrence of pesticides at hydrologically-relevant spatial scales, involving various hydrological conditions. We conducted a monitoring study in a residential area (9.5 ha, Flanders, Belgium) to investigate the use and loss of a widely-used herbicide (glyphosate) and its major degradation product (aminomethylphosphonic acid, AMPA). The study covered 13 rainfall events over 67 days. Overall, less than 0.5% of glyphosate applied was recovered from the storm drain outflow in the catchment. Maximum detected concentrations were 6.1 μg/L and 5.8 μg/L for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively, both of which are below the predicted no-effect concentration for surface water proposed by the Flemish environmental agency (10 μg/L), but are above the EU drinking water standard (0.1 μg/L). The measured concentrations and percentage loss rates can be attributed partially to the strong sorption capacity of glyphosate and low runoff potential in the study area. However, glyphosate loss varied considerably among rainfall events and event load of glyphosate mass was mainly controlled by rainfall amount, according to further statistical analyses. To obtain urban pesticide management insights, robust tools are required to investigate the loss and occurrence of pesticides influenced by various factors, particularly the hydrological and spatial factors.
    Science of The Total Environment 02/2015; 517:207–214. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.040 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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