Article

Residential runoff as a source of pyrethroid pesticides to urban creeks

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140, USA.
Environmental Pollution (Impact Factor: 3.9). 09/2008; 157(1):287-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2008.06.037
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pyrethroid pesticides occur in urban creek sediments at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive aquatic life. To better understand the source of these residues, runoff from residential neighborhoods around Sacramento, California was monitored over the course of a year. Pyrethroids were present in every sample. Bifenthrin, found at up to 73 ng/L in the water and 1211 ng/g on suspended sediment, was the pyrethroid of greatest toxicological concern, with cypermethrin and cyfluthrin of secondary concern. The bifenthrin could have originated either from use by consumers or professional pest controllers, though the seasonal pattern of discharge from the drain was more consistent with professional use as the dominant source. Stormwater runoff was more important than dry season irrigation runoff in transporting pyrethroids to urban creeks. A single intense storm was capable of discharging as much bifenthrin to an urban creek in 3h as that discharged over 6 months of irrigation runoff.

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    • "To realistically quantify the loss of glyphosate and investigate the wide range of influencing factors in urban areas, concurrent data are required , including rainfall, discharge, glyphosate application, spatial information , and concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA. Such concurrent data were typically not fully covered by previous studies, due to the spatial extents and objectives of interest (Kolpin et al., 2004; Botta et al., 2009; Weston et al., 2009; Hanke et al., 2010; Wittmer et al., 2011; Gan et al., 2012; Glozier et al., 2012), except for a UK residential glyphosate study (Ramwell et al., 2014). However, the UK study sampled only four rainfall events and had limited reflection on the hydrological component. "
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    ABSTRACT: Urban runoff can be a significant source of pesticides in urban streams. However, quantification of this source has been difficult because pesticide use by urban residents (e.g., on pavements or in gardens) is often unknown, particularly at the scale of a residential catchment. Proper quantification and characterization of pesticide loss via urban runoff require sound information on the use and occurrence of pesticides at hydrologically-relevant spatial scales, involving various hydrological conditions. We conducted a monitoring study in a residential area (9.5 ha, Flanders, Belgium) to investigate the use and loss of a widely-used herbicide (glyphosate) and its major degradation product (aminomethylphosphonic acid, AMPA). The study covered 13 rainfall events over 67 days. Overall, less than 0.5% of glyphosate applied was recovered from the storm drain outflow in the catchment. Maximum detected concentrations were 6.1 μg/L and 5.8 μg/L for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively, both of which are below the predicted no-effect concentration for surface water proposed by the Flemish environmental agency (10 μg/L), but are above the EU drinking water standard (0.1 μg/L). The measured concentrations and percentage loss rates can be attributed partially to the strong sorption capacity of glyphosate and low runoff potential in the study area. However, glyphosate loss varied considerably among rainfall events and event load of glyphosate mass was mainly controlled by rainfall amount, according to further statistical analyses. To obtain urban pesticide management insights, robust tools are required to investigate the loss and occurrence of pesticides influenced by various factors, particularly the hydrological and spatial factors.
    Science of The Total Environment 02/2015; 517:207–214. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.040 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "To realistically quantify the loss of glyphosate and investigate the wide range of influencing factors in urban areas, concurrent data are required , including rainfall, discharge, glyphosate application, spatial information , and concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA. Such concurrent data were typically not fully covered by previous studies, due to the spatial extents and objectives of interest (Kolpin et al., 2004; Botta et al., 2009; Weston et al., 2009; Hanke et al., 2010; Wittmer et al., 2011; Gan et al., 2012; Glozier et al., 2012), except for a UK residential glyphosate study (Ramwell et al., 2014). However, the UK study sampled only four rainfall events and had limited reflection on the hydrological component. "
    IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, San Francisco, California, USA; 08/2014
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    • "Concentrations of bifenthrin in the pot and runoff simulations regularly exceeded 200 ng/L, which is more than 100 times greater than the LC 50 for H. azteca. Additionally, studies have shown that insecticides from stormwater and urban runoff accumulate in streambed sediments (Gan 2006; Gan et al. 2005, 2012; Hintzen et al. 2009; Weston et al. 2009). The aqueous photolysis half-life of bifenthrin ranges from 276 to 416 days and aquatic sediments for up to 16 months, indicating that accumulation of insecticide running off into streams is likely (Fecko 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: Tree nurseries and greenhouses within the USDA red imported fire ant (RIFA) quarantine zone are required to incorporate insecticides into their potting media to prevent artificial spread of RIFA. Bifenthrin and fipronil are two common insecticides that are incorporated into potting media. During irrigation and stormwater events, there is potential for insecticides to leach from nursery pots, resulting in the contamination of nearby surface waters. In this study, occurrences of insecticides in simulated nursery runoff were compared with two irrigation strategies and two types of containers in single pot leaching and field runoff simulations. In addition, toxicity of pot leachate to the aquatic invertebrate, Hyallela azteca, was measured, and removal efficiencies of insecticides from bioretention cell media were evaluated. Overhead irrigation resulted in significantly higher concentrations than drip irrigation, and RootMaker® pots allowed more leaching as compared to standard slick-wall pots. However, in all tests, the average concentration of bifenthrin during 15 days of leaching in both pot and field simulations was greater than 200 ng/L; more than 100-fold greater than the LC50 for H. azteca. Toxicity studies confirmed this level of toxicity. Higher amounts of compost, 20 and 40 %, in bioretention cell media resulted in greater percent reduction of both bifenthrin and fipronil. This study determined that management techniques may be able to limit the amount of insecticide that leaches from pots and runs off to receiving water bodies. Specifically, the selection of appropriate pot types, irrigation strategies, or filtering runoff through bioretention cells may reduce contamination loads. Thus, further best management strategies such as the use of bioretention cells are needed in nursery and greenhouse facilities to prevent surface water runoff from transporting toxic insecticides.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 04/2014; 21(14). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-2816-9 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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Robert W Holmes