Tobacco quitline use: enhancing benefit and increasing abstinence.
ABSTRACT This study sought to evaluate the impact on the quitline utilization and abstinence rates of increasing a free nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) benefit from 4 weeks to 6 weeks.
Intake data were utilized to assess the number of callers to the quitline during the time period in which 4 weeks of free NRT was provided (January-November 2006) and the time period of the enhanced NRT benefit (December 2006-June 2007). Abstinence rates at 3 and 6 months were calculated for people utilizing the quitline program during both time periods.
The mean number of intake calls to the quitline increased from 397 (range 326-509) prior to the enhanced NRT benefit to 712 (range 592-1227) during the 6-week NRT benefit period. The 6-month tobacco abstinence rates were significantly higher among people receiving the 6-week NRT benefit compared to those receiving the 4-week benefit (OR=1.51; 95% CI=1.07, 1.66).
The findings suggest that the promotion of an expanded NRT benefit can increase quitline utilization and abstinence rates.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify circumstances in which biochemical assessments of smoking produce systematically higher or lower estimates of smoking than self-reports. A secondary aim was to evaluate different statistical approaches to analyzing variation in validity estimates. Literature searches and personal inquiries identified 26 published reports containing 51 comparisons between self-reported behavior and biochemical measures. The sensitivity and specificity of self-reports of smoking were calculated for each study as measures of accuracy. Sensitivity ranged from 6% to 100% (mean = 87.5%), and specificity ranged from 33% to 100% (mean = 89.2%). Interviewer-administered questionnaires, observational studies, reports by adults, and biochemical validation with cotinine plasma were associated with higher estimates of sensitivity and specificity. Self-reports of smoking are accurate in most studies. To improve accuracy, biochemical assessment, preferably with cotinine plasma, should be considered in intervention studies and student populations.American Journal of Public Health 08/1994; 84(7):1086-93. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Telephone services that offer smoking-cessation counseling (quitlines) have proliferated in recent years, encouraged by positive results of clinical trials. The question remains, however, whether those results can be translated into real-world effectiveness. We embedded a randomized, controlled trial into the ongoing service of the California Smokers' Helpline. Callers were randomly assigned to a treatment group (1973 callers) or a control group (1309 callers). All participants received self-help materials. Those in the treatment group were assigned to receive up to seven counseling sessions; those in the control group could also receive counseling if they called back for it after randomization. Counseling was provided to 72.1 percent of those in the treatment group and 31.6 percent of those in the control group (mean, 3.0 sessions). The rates of abstinence for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, according to an intention-to-treat analysis, were 23.7 percent, 17.9 percent, 12.8 percent, and 9.1 percent, respectively, for those in the treatment group and 16.5 percent, 12.1 percent, 8.6 percent, and 6.9 percent, respectively, for those in the control group (P<0.001). Analyses factoring out both the subgroup of control subjects who received counseling and the corresponding treatment subgroup indicate that counseling approximately doubled abstinence rates: rates of abstinence for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were 20.7 percent, 15.9 percent, 11.7 percent, and 7.5 percent, respectively, in the remaining subjects in the treatment group and 9.6 percent, 6.7 percent, 5.2 percent, and 4.1 percent, respectively, in the remaining subjects in the control group (P<0.001). Therefore, the absolute difference in the rate of abstinence for 12 months between the remaining subjects in the treatment and control groups was 3.4 percent. The 12-month abstinence rates for those who made at least one attempt to quit were 23.3 percent in the treatment group and 18.4 percent in the control group (P<0.001). A telephone counseling protocol for smoking cessation, previously proven efficacious, was effective when translated to a real-world setting. Its success supports Public Health Service guidelines calling for greater availability of quitlines.New England Journal of Medicine 10/2002; 347(14):1087-93. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since June 1997, Australia has run its first nationally coordinated mass media anti-smoking campaign, with all States collaborating to offer a standard Quitline service. An overview of the Australian national Quitline service is presented as well as two studies describing (a) the relationship between television advertising and call volume and type, and (b) the quit rates of callers over time. Data on extent of advertising, as measured by weekly television target audience rating points (TARPs), is compared with weekly call volume and disposition. A randomly selected sample of callers was followed up at 3 weeks, 6 months and 12 months to assess caller appraisal and quit rates. The Australian Quitline service, in the context of a nationally coordinated, major anti tobacco campaign. In a one year period from June 1997, 3.6% of adult Australian smokers called the Quitline. Weekly call volume was strongly related to TARPs and increased further when an advertisement specifically promoting the Quitline was broadcast. Calls involving requests for counselling, as opposed to brief calls to request quit materials, were more likely with lower TARPs. Of the cohort who were smoking at baseline, 28% reported they had quit smoking at a one year follow up and 5% had been quit for an entire year. In the context of a national mass media campaign, this study illustrates that it is possible to bring together differing State based services to provide an accessible, acceptable, and effective quit smoking service.Tobacco control 10/2003; 12 Suppl 2:ii53-8. · 3.85 Impact Factor