Potential use of cotton plant wastes for the removal of Remazol Black B reactive dye.
ABSTRACT In this study, the potential use of cotton plant wastes - stalk (CS) and hull (CH) - as sorbents for the removal of Remazol Black B (RB5), a vinyl sulfone type reactive dye, was investigated. The results indicated that adsorption was strongly pH-dependent but slightly temperature-dependent for each sorbent-dye system. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of adsorption equilibrium and isotherm constants were evaluated at 25 degrees C. All models except the Freundlich model were applicable for the description of dye adsorption by both sorbents in the concentration range studied. According to the Langmuir model, CS and CH sorbents exhibited the highest RB5 dye uptake capacities of 35.7 and 50.9 mg g(-1), respectively, at an initial pH value of 1.0. Simple mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of adsorption and potential rate-controlling steps. It was found that both external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion played an important role in the adsorption mechanisms of dye, and adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order type kinetic model for each sorbent. Using the Langmuir model parameters, thermodynamic constant DeltaG degrees was also evaluated for each sorption system.
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ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium glutamicum, a lysine fermentation industry waste, showed promise for the removal of Reactive black 5 (RB5). Due to practical difficulties in solid-liquid separation, the free biomass was immobilized in two polymer matrices: calcium alginate and polysulfone. Initially, the optimization of biomass loading in polymeric beads and bead dosage were examined. Of the different combinations examined, 4% (with bead dosage of 2 g per 40 ml) and 14% (with bead dosage of 1 g per 40 ml) in the case of alginate and polysulfone beads, respectively, were identified as the optimal conditions. According to the Langmuir model, at pH 1, the maximum RB5 uptakes of 352, 282 and 291 mg g(-1) were observed for free, alginate and polysulfone-immobilized biomass, respectively. According to the Weber-Morris model, intraparticle diffusion was found to be the potential rate limiting step for the immobilized beads. Regeneration experiments, with 0.01 M NaOH and Na(2)CO(3) as eluents, revealed that polysulfone beads exhibited invariable RB5 uptake capacity and very high mechanical stability even at the end of twentieth cycle, confirming the technical feasibility of the biosorption process for industrial applications.Chemosphere 09/2007; 68(10):1838-45. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The control of water pollution has become of increasing importance in recent years. The release of dyes into the environment constitutes only a small proportion of water pollution, but dyes are visible in small quantities due to their brilliance. Tightening government legislation is forcing textile industries to treat their waste effluent to an increasingly high standard. Currently, removal of dyes from effluents is by physio-chemical means. Such methods are often very costly and although the dyes are removed, accumulation of concentrated sludge creates a disposal problem. There is a need to find alternative treatments that are effective in removing dyes from large volumes of effluents and are low in cost, such as biological or combination systems. This article reviews the current available technologies and suggests an effective, cheaper alternative for dye removal and decolourisation applicable on large scale.Bioresource Technology 06/2001; 77(3):247-55. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those that are not easily biodegradable. Dyes represent one of the problematic groups. Currently, a combination of biological treatment and adsorption on activated carbon is becoming more common for removal of dyes from wastewater. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred sorbent for color removal, its widespread use is restricted due to high cost. As such, alternative non-conventional sorbents have been investigated. It is well-known that natural materials, waste materials from industry and agriculture and biosorbents can be obtained and employed as inexpensive sorbents. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review (i) presents a critical analysis of these materials; (ii) describes their characteristics, advantages and limitations; and (iii) discusses various mechanisms involved. It is evident from a literature survey of about 210 recent papers that low-cost sorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain dyes. In particular, chitosan might be a promising adsorbent for environmental and purification purposes.Bioresource Technology 07/2006; 97(9):1061-85. · 4.75 Impact Factor