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PCSK9 binds to multiple receptors and can be functionally inhibited by an EGF-A peptide

Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Research, Schering-Plough Research Institute, 2015 Galloping Hill Road, K-15-1/1945, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (Impact Factor: 2.28). 11/2008; 375(1):69-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.07.106
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and induces its internalization and degradation. PCSK9 binding to LDLR is mediated through the LDLR epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain. We show for the first time that an EGF-A peptide inhibits PCSK9-mediated degradation of LDLR in HepG2 cells. In addition to LDLR, we show that PCSK9 also binds directly to ApoER2 and mouse VLDLR. Importantly, binding of PCSK9 to either LDLR or mouse VLDLR was effectively inhibited by EGF-A while binding to ApoER2 was less affected. In contrast, LDL receptor-associated protein (RAP), which interacts with LDL receptor repeat type A (LA) domains, inhibited PCSK9 binding to ApoER2 with greater efficacy than either LDLR or mVLDLR. These data demonstrate that while PCSK9 binds several receptors via its EGF-A binding domain, additional contacts with other receptor domains are also involved.

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    • "hesis , EGF - A2 and EGF - A3 showed non - saturatable binding to PCSK9 in surface plasmon resonance ( SPR ) up to 400 µM , whereas the dissociation constant ( K D ) of EGF - A4 for PCSK9 ( 1 . 18 µM ) was similar to that of the wild type EGF - A1 ( 1 . 01 µM ; Table 1 ; Figure S3 ) and comparable to that observed for EGF - A in a previous study ( Shan et al . , 2008 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: Disrupting the binding interaction between proprotein convertase (PCSK9) and the epidermal growth factor-like domain A (EGF-A domain) in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) is a promising strategy to promote LDL-R recycling and thereby lower circulating cholesterol levels. In this study, truncated 26 amino acid EGF-A analogs were designed and synthesized, and their structures were analyzed in solution and in complex with PCSK9. The most potent peptide had an increased binding affinity for PCSK9 (KD = 0.6 μM) compared with wild-type EGF-A (KD = 1.2 μM), and the ability to increase LDL-R recycling in the presence of PCSK9 in a cell-based assay.
    Chemistry & biology 01/2014; 21(2). DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2013.11.014 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    • "The pro-domain remains non-covalently associated with the catalytic domain and inhibits further proteolytic enzyme activity [5]. In vitro and in vivo overexpression and knockout/knockdown studies demonstrated that PCSK9 targets the LDLR for degradation after the interaction with the EGF-A homology domain of LDLR expressed on the cell surface of hepatocytes [6] [7] [8]. Although the vast majority of the studies focused on the role of PCSK9 on LDLR expression in the liver, emerging evidence on the expression and the function of PCSK9 in extra-hepatic tissues exists [4,9–13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is an important regulator of hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels. Although PCSK9 is mainly of hepatic origin, extra-hepatic tissues significantly contribute to PCSK9 production and, potentially, local regulation of LDL receptor expression. In the present study we show that, among vascular cells, PCSK9 is expressed in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) but not in endothelial cells, macrophages and monocytes. PCSK9 was also detectable in human atherosclerotic plaques. Conditioned media from SMCs significantly reduced LDLR expression in human macrophage and in the macrophage cell line J774. Co-culture experiments also demonstrated the influence of SMCs on LDLR expression in J774. PCSK9 released from SMCs directly regulated LDLR expression in macrophages as demonstrated by retroviral overexpression or knockdown of PCSK9 with small interfering RNA and by using recombinant PCSK9. Moreover, the proteolytic activity of PCSK9 was not required for LDLR downregulation since cultured media containing either the catalytic inactive PCSK9 or PCSK9 WT had a similar effect on LDLR in J774. Finally, conditioned media from SMCs affected β-VLDL cholesterol uptake and PCSK9 expression reduced both LDLR and LDL uptake in J774. Taken together our data indicate that PCSK9 secreted by human SMCs is functionally active and capable of reducing LDLR expression in macrophages. A possible direct role for this protein in foam cell formation and atherogenesis is suggested.
    Atherosclerosis 11/2011; 220(2):381-6. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.11.026 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: La proprotéine convertase subtilisine/kexine type 9 (PCSK9) favorise la dégradation post-transcriptionnelle du récepteur des lipoprotéines de faible densité (LDLr) dans les hépatocytes et augmente le LDL-cholestérol dans le plasma. Cependant, il n’est pas clair si la PCSK9 joue un rôle dans l’intestin. Dans cette étude, nous caractérisons les variations de la PCSK9 et du LDLr dans les cellules Caco-2/15 différentiées en fonction d’une variété d’effecteurs potentiels. Le cholestérol (100 µM) lié à l’albumine ou présenté en micelles a réduit de façon significative l’expression génique (30%, p<0,05) et l’expression protéique (50%, p<0,05) de la PCSK9. Étonnamment, une diminution similaire dans le LDLr protéique a été enregistrée (45%, p<0,05). Les cellules traitées avec le 25-hydroxycholestérol (50 µM) présentent également des réductions significatives dans l’ARNm (37%, p<0,01) et la protéine (75%, p<0,001) de la PCSK9. Une baisse des expressions génique (30%, p<0,05) et protéique (57%, p<0,01) a également été constatée dans le LDLr. Des diminutions ont aussi été observées pour la HMG CoA réductase et la protéine liant l’élément de réponse aux stérols SREBP-2. Il a été démontré que le SREBP-2 peut activer transcriptionnellement la PCSK9 par le biais de la liaison de SREBP-2 à son élément de réponse aux stérols situé dans la région proximale du promoteur de la PCSK9. Inversement, la déplétion du contenu cellulaire en cholestérol par l’hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrine a augmenté l’expression génique de la PCSK9 (20%, p<0,05) et son contenu protéique (540%, p<0,001), en parallèle avec les niveaux protéiques de SREBP-2. L’ajout des acides biliaires taurocholate et déoxycholate dans le milieu apical des cellules intestinales Caco-2/15 a provoqué une baisse d’expression génique (30%, p<0,01) et une hausse d’expression protéique (43%, p<0,01) de la PCSK9 respectivement, probablement via la modulation du FXR (farnesoid X receptor). Ces données combinées semblent donc indiquer que la PCSK9 fonctionne comme un senseur de stérols dans le petit intestin. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) posttranslationally promotes the degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) in hepatocytes and increases plasma LDL cholesterol. It is not clear, however, whether PCSK9 plays a role in the small intestine. Here, we characterized the patterns of variations of PCSK9 and LDLr in fully differentiated Caco-2/15 cells as a function of various potential effectors. Cholesterol (100 µM) solubilised in albumin or micelles significantly down-regulated PCSK9 gene (30%, p<0,05) and protein expression (50%, p<0,05), surprisingly in concert with a decrease in LDLr protein levels (45%, p<0,05). 25-hydroxycholesterol (50 µM) treated cells also displayed significant reduction in PCSK9 gene (37 %, p<0,01) and protein (75% p<0,001) expression, while LDLr showed a decrease at the gene (30%, p< 0,05) and protein (57%, p<0,01) levels, respectively. The amounts of PCSK9 mRNA and protein in Caco-2/15 cells were associated to the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase and sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) that can transcriptionally activate PCSK9 via sterol-regulatory elements located in its proximal promoter region. On the other hand, depletion of cholesterol content by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrine up-regulated PCSK9 transcripts (20%, p<0,05) and protein mass (540%, p<0,001), in parallel with SREBP-2 protein levels. The addition of bile acids, taurocholate and deoxycholate, to the apical culture medium lowered PCSK9 gene expression (30%, p<0,01) and raised PCSK9 protein expression (43%, p<0,01) respectively, probably via the modulation of farnesoid X receptor. Combined, these data indicate that PCSK9 functions as a sensor of sterol in the small intestine.
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