PCSK9 binds to multiple receptors and can be functionally inhibited by an EGF-A peptide.
ABSTRACT Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and induces its internalization and degradation. PCSK9 binding to LDLR is mediated through the LDLR epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain. We show for the first time that an EGF-A peptide inhibits PCSK9-mediated degradation of LDLR in HepG2 cells. In addition to LDLR, we show that PCSK9 also binds directly to ApoER2 and mouse VLDLR. Importantly, binding of PCSK9 to either LDLR or mouse VLDLR was effectively inhibited by EGF-A while binding to ApoER2 was less affected. In contrast, LDL receptor-associated protein (RAP), which interacts with LDL receptor repeat type A (LA) domains, inhibited PCSK9 binding to ApoER2 with greater efficacy than either LDLR or mVLDLR. These data demonstrate that while PCSK9 binds several receptors via its EGF-A binding domain, additional contacts with other receptor domains are also involved.
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ABSTRACT: ThermoFluor (a miniaturized high-throughput protein stability assay) was used to analyze the linkage between protein thermal stability and ligand binding. Equilibrium binding ligands increase protein thermal stability by an amount proportional to the concentration and affinity of the ligand. Binding constants (K(b)) were measured by examining the systematic effect of ligand concentration on protein stability. The precise ligand effects depend on the thermodynamics of protein stability: in particular, the unfolding enthalpy. An extension of current theoretical treatments was developed for tight binding inhibitors, where ligand effect on T(m) can also reveal binding stoichiometry. A thermodynamic analysis of carbonic anhydrase by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) enabled a dissection of the Gibbs free energy of stability into enthalpic and entropic components. Under certain conditions, thermal stability increased by over 30 degrees C; the heat capacity of protein unfolding was estimated from the dependence of calorimetric enthalpy on T(m). The binding affinity of six sulfonamide inhibitors to two isozymes (human type 1 and bovine type 2) was analyzed by both ThermoFluor and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), resulting in a good correlation in the rank ordering of ligand affinity. This combined investigation by ThermoFluor, ITC, and DSC provides a detailed picture of the linkage between ligand binding and protein stability. The systematic effect of ligands on stability is shown to be a general tool to measure affinity.Biochemistry 05/2005; 44(13):5258-66. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seven secretory mammalian kexin-like subtilases have been identified that cleave a variety of precursor proteins at monobasic and dibasic residues. The recently characterized pyrolysin-like subtilase SKI-1 cleaves proproteins at nonbasic residues. In this work we describe the properties of a proteinase K-like subtilase, neural apoptosis-regulated convertase 1 (NARC-1), representing the ninth member of the secretory subtilase family. Biosynthetic and microsequencing analyses of WT and mutant enzyme revealed that human and mouse pro-NARC-1 are autocatalytically and intramolecularly processed into NARC-1 at the (Y,I)VV(V,L)(L,M) downward arrow motif, a site that is representative of its enzymic specificity. In vitro peptide processing studies andor Ala substitutions of the P1-P5 sites suggested that hydrophobicaliphatic residues are more critical at P1, P3, and P5 than at P2 or P4. NARC-1 expression is highest in neuroepithelioma SK-N-MCIXC, hepatic BRL-3A, and in colon carcinoma LoVo-C5 cell lines. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analyses of NARC-1 expression during development in the adult and after partial hepatectomy revealed that it is expressed in cells that have the capacity to proliferate and differentiate. These include hepatocytes, kidney mesenchymal cells, intestinal ileum, and colon epithelia as well as embryonic brain telencephalon neurons. Accordingly, transfection of NARC-1 in primary cultures of embryonic day 13.5 telencephalon cells led to enhanced recruitment of undifferentiated neural progenitor cells into the neuronal lineage, suggesting that NARC-1 is implicated in the differentiation of cortical neurons.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2003; 100(3):928-33. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To support drug discovery efforts for cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), a moderate-throughput binding assay that can rank order or estimate the affinity of lead inhibitors has been developed. The method referred to as temperature-dependent circular dichroism (TdCD) uses the classical temperature-dependent unfolding of proteins by circular dichroism (CD) to measure the degree of protein unfolding in the absence and presence of potential inhibitors. The midpoint of unfolding is the Tm value. Rank ordering the affinity and predictions of the dissociation constant of compounds is obtained by measuring the increase in Tm for different protein-inhibitor complexes. This is the first time an extensive characterization of the TdCD method has been described for characterizing lead inhibitors in a drug discovery mode. The method has several favorable properties. Using the new six-cell Peltier temperature controller for the Jasco 810 spectropolarimeter, one can determine the affinity of 12-18 compounds per day. The method also requires only 20-40 microg protein per sample and can be used to estimate the affinity of compounds with dissociation constants of picomolar to micromolar. An important property of the method for lead discovery is that dissociation constants of approximately 5 microM can be estimated from a single experiment using a low concentration of compound such as 20 microM, which is generally low enough for most small molecules to be soluble for testing. In addition, the method does not require labeling the compound or protein. Although other methods such as isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) can provide a full thermodynamic characterization of binding, ITC requires 1-2 mg protein per sample, cannot readily determine binding constants below nanomolar values, is most versatile with soluble compounds, and has a throughput of two to three experiments per day. The ITC method is not usually used in a high-throughput drug discovery mode; however, using the thermodynamic information from several ITC experiments can make the TdCD method very robust in determining reliable binding constants. Using the kinase inhibitors BMS-250595, purvalanol B, AG-12275, flavopiridol, and several other compounds, it is demonstrated that one can obtain excellent comparisons between the Kd values of binding to CDK2 obtained by TdCD and ITC.Analytical Biochemistry 11/2005; 345(2):187-97. · 2.58 Impact Factor