Effects of everolimus monotherapy on hematological parameters and iron homeostasis in de novo liver transplant recipients: Preliminary results
ABSTRACT Anemia after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a common complication due to several reasons. Immunosuppressive drugs play an important role in anemia occurring at 1 month or more after OLT. Several studies describe myelosuppression immunosuppressants such as the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors.
We performed a single-center, prospective trial consisting of a short 30-day course of cyclosporine (CsA) associated with everolimus (EVL) from postoperative day 10 (Group EVL) versus a CsA immunosuppressive regimen (Group CsA) in de novo OLT patients. We explored the influence of immunosuppressive drugs on hematological parameters comparing EVL versus CsA.
Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the EVL and 12 in the CsA Groups. After OLT, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC), platelets (PLT), transferrin saturation (TSAT), iron, ferritin, and transferrin did not differ significantly between the 2 groups at any time point. Among the patients who reached 6-months of follow-up, 5 (41.7%) EVL and 4 (80%) CsA subjects were anemic (P=not significant [NS]). Only anemia in patients enrolled in Group EVL showed a trend toward the features of microcytic, hypochromic anemia.
Our results demonstrated that de novo anemia in OLT patients treated with EVL monotherapy showed the same incidence as in patients treated with CsA. Hb values remained similar during the entire follow-up. Moreover, overall myelosuppression in the EVL Group was not significantly different from patients in the CsA Group.
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ABSTRACT: We initiated a randomized controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of sirolimus on disease progression in patients affected by autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Here we report the preliminary safety results of the first 6 months of treatment. A total of 25 patients were randomized to sirolimus 2 mg/day and 25 patients to no treatment except standard care. Treatment adherence was monitored electronically. At baseline and at Month 6, laboratory parameters were analysed and the urinary protein profile in 24-h urine collections was determined. Both treatment groups were well balanced for age, sex and renal function. In 94.1 +/- 11.4% of the study days, patients in the sirolimus group were exposed to the drug when assuming a therapeutic efficacy duration of 30 h. At Month 6, the mean sirolimus dose and trough level were 1.28 +/- 0.71 mg/day and 3.8 +/- 1.9 microg/l, respectively. Glomerular (albumin, transferrin, IgG) and tubular (retinol-binding protein, alpha(1)-microglobulin) protein excretion remained unchanged. Glomerular filtration rate also did not change significantly. Haematological parameters were similar in both groups, except for a mild reduction of the mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes in patients receiving sirolimus. Lipid levels were similar in both groups. Adverse events were transient and mild, and no grade 3 or 4 events occurred. The incidence of infections was similar in the sirolimus group (80%) and the standard group (88%). The most common gastrointestinal adverse events were mucositis (72% in the sirolimus group versus 16% in the standard group, P = 0.0001) and diarrhoea (36% in the sirolimus versus 20% in the standard group, P = 0.345). Treatment of ADPKD patients with sirolimus with a dose of 1-2 mg/day is safe and does not cause proteinuria or impairment of GFR. Treatment adherence was excellent. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00346918.).Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 07/2009; 24(11):3334-42. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfp280 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors behave as potent immunosuppressants which have the advantages, with respect to calcineurin inhibitors (CNI: cyclosporine or tacrolimus), of no nephrotoxicity and inhibition of cell proliferation. They are particularly suitable for patients with renal insufficiency or neoplasias. Twenty-two liver transplant patients were immunosuppressed with everolimus or sirolimus as rescue therapy after CNI treatment: 7 hepatocellular carcinomas; 5 de novo malignancies; 4 renal insufficiencies; 4 chronic rejections; and 2 acute rejection episodes. There were 16.7% tumor recurrences, and 25% improvements in renal function, 75% in chronic rejection, and 50% in acute rejection. There was no incidence of rejection, kidney failure, gastrointestinal intolerance, hydrocarbon intolerance, hypertension, or arterial or venous thrombosis. We observed incidences of 50% for hypercholesterolemia, 31.8% for hypertriglyceridemia, 22.7% for thrombocytopenia, 18.2% for leukopenia, and 9.1% for anemia. The intercurrent infection rate was 13.6%, including oral thrush in 13.6%. Lower limb edema occurred in 13.6%, with 1 case of facial edema and 1 of alopecia. mTOR inhibitors were safe immunosuppressive drugs whose side effects were controlled and easily managed. They have advantages with respect to CNI due to their slight effects on kidney function and lack of promotion of diabetes mellitus. Although their long-term effectiveness for control of neoplastic diseases is yet to be seen, they can be used safely in these patients with no incidence of rejection. Their effectiveness to control chronic rejection seems significant, but it is doubtful for steroid-resistant acute rejection episodes.Transplantation Proceedings 07/2009; 41(6):2181-3. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2009.06.083 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors behave as potent immunosuppressants, which have the advantages, with respect to calcineurin inhibitors (CNI; cyclosporine or tacrolimus), of no nephrotoxicity but inhibition of cell proliferation. They are particularly suitable for patients with renal insufficiency or neoplasias. Twenty-eight liver transplant patients were immunosuppressed with everolimus or sirolimus as rescue therapy after CNI treatment: 8 hepatocellular carcinomas; 7 de novo malignancies; 6 renal insufficiencies; 3 chronic rejections; 3 acute rejection episodes; and 1 epilepsy. There were 0% tumor recurrences, 50% improvements in 33% no change, and 17% worsening of renal function among cases of renal insufficiency; 0% improvement in cases of chronic rejection, and 33% improvement in acute rejection episodes. There was a 7% incidence of acute rejection episodes, but no kidney failure, gastrointestinal intolerance, hydrocarbon intolerance, hypertension, or arterial or venous thrombosis. Diarrhea occurred in 7%; hypercholesterolemi in 46% hypertriglyceridemia in 50% thrombocytopenia in 14%, leukopenia in 14%, and anemia in 39%. The 12% intercurrent infection rate included oral thrush in 11%. Lower limb edema occurred in 21%; 1 case displayed facial edema and 1, alopecia. mTOR inhibitors were safe immunosuppressive drugs whose side effects were controlled and easily managed. They have advantages with respect to CNI due to their slight effects on kidney function and lack of promotion of diabetes mellitus. Although their long-term effectiveness for control of neoplastic diseases is yet to be seen, they can be used safely in these patients with a low incidence of rejection. Their effectiveness to control steroid-resistant acute rejection episodes or renal insufficiency seems significant, but they are of doubtful benefit for chronic rejection.Transplantation Proceedings 03/2010; 42(2):641-3. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.02.011 · 0.95 Impact Factor