Anxiety in a socially high-risk sample of pregnant women in Canada.
ABSTRACT To determine if an anxiety dimension in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) could be identified in a sample of pregnant women with high social risk factors.
Four hundred women attending prenatal outreach programs, most of whom were single, low-income, and Aboriginal, participated in a study of feelings in pregnancy. The primary outcome measure was the EPDS. Data were also collected on sociodemographic, obstetrical-biological, psychological, and behavioural variables.
Factor analysis of the EPDS revealed 3 factors: anxiety, depression, and self-harm. The anxiety factor accounted for the greatest variance in the overall EPDS score. Comparisons of different groups of women revealed significantly more anxiety in the women aged under 19 years, compared with those over 25 years (P < 0.01). Linear regression analysis showed anxiety was associated with age, stressors (that is, pregnancy, health of the baby, birth of the baby, money, and other), history of depression, and fluctuating moods.
Anxiety symptoms were predominant in the emotional distress identified by the EPDS in this sample of socially high-risk pregnant women. Younger women appear to experience the highest levels of anxiety. Anxiety in pregnancy in socially high-risk women should not be normalized.