Incarceration has been identified as a key variable to be addressed in halting the HIV epidemic among African Americans. Our research team has been conducting and evaluating HIV prevention interventions for prisoners and their families since the early 1990s, including interventions specifically tailored to the needs of women with incarcerated partners. This article describes the development and implementation of a multicomponent HIV prevention intervention for women with incarcerated partners, and presents qualitative data from women who participated as peer educators in this intervention. Women with incarcerated partners reported low rates of condom use and HIV testing combined with a lack of information about prison-related HIV risks. We found that peer education is a feasible intervention to reach women with incarcerated partners and that flexibility and inclusiveness are important factors in designing intervention programs for this population.
"Incarcerated mothers are much more likely than incarcerated fathers (77% vs. 26%) to have been their children's primary caregiver prior to arrest (Mumola, 2000). Incarcerated women bear higher rates of drug and alcohol dependence (Karberg & James, 2005) and are more likely to have been under the influence of drugs at the time of the crime (Greenfeld & Snell, 1999). As compared with their male counterparts, female inmates also report a much higher prevalence of mental health problems (55%–63% vs. 73%–75%, respectively; James & Glaze, 2006), as well as higher rates of diagnosed mental illness. "
"Finally, all women who completed the peer education orientation and at least one supervision session were invited to participate in a qualitative interview (N = 11) and a 3-month follow-up interview (N = 9). Findings from these interviews have been published separately . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Having an incarcerated partner presents a unique HIV risk for women, particularly low-income women of color. We developed a population-specific risk reduction intervention for women visiting men in prison that was peer educator-based and included individual and community-level intervention components. Women who were assessed prior to the intervention period had a positive association between the number of unprotected penetrative intercourse (UPI) episodes prior to their partners' incarceration and the number of UPI episodes following partners' release from prison. However, this association was negated among women assessed during the intervention. Intervention participants also were more likely to be tested for HIV, to have partners who got tested, and to talk with their partners about significantly more HIV-related topics. Conducting intervention and evaluation activities with women visiting incarcerated men is feasible and is a useful model for reaching more at-risk women.
AIDS and Behavior 02/2011; 15(2):365-75. DOI:10.1007/s10461-010-9770-4 · 3.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Techniques making use of genetic algorithms are proposed as a
means of tuning PID controllers to provide prescribed gain and phase
margins. In particular, it is shown that to implement the proposed
tuning technique only limited frequency response data is required and
that this may be readily obtained from simple online tests using a relay
and simple time-delayed control. An illustrative example of the
practical application of the method is provided in which a process
control system is genetically tuned to a specified gain and phase margin
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