Regulation of glucocorticoid receptor in nasal polyps by systemic and intranasal glucocorticoids.
ABSTRACT Poor response of nasal polyps to glucocorticoids (GCs) may be because of abnormal expression of GC receptors (GR) alpha and beta or to downregulation of GRalpha. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo regulation of GR isoforms in GC-treated nasal polyps and to assess the relationship between clinical response to GCs and GR levels.
Patients with nasal polyps were randomly (3:1) treated (n = 51) or not (n = 14) with oral prednisone and intranasal budesonide for 2 weeks, plus intranasal budesonide for 10 additional weeks. Nasal symptoms were evaluated. Biopsies were obtained before (w0) and after 2 (w2) and 12 (w12) weeks of treatment, and analysed for their inflammatory content and GR mRNA (10(2) cDNA copies/mug total RNA) and protein (% immunoreactive inflammatory cells) expression. Healthy nasal mucosa (n = 11) was also investigated. Data are presented as median and 25-75th percentile.
At w0, nasal polyps expressed less GRalpha mRNA (1343;683-2263; P < 0.05) and GR protein (41;29-54; P < 0.05) than nasal mucosa (2474;1346-2933; 60;51-72, respectively). GRbeta immunoreactivity was higher in nasal polyps (11;4-19; P < 0.05) than in nasal mucosa (5;2-5). At w2, increased GRalpha mRNA (2010;1037-2732; P < 0.01) and GR protein (56;27-71; P = 0.056) were found compared with w0 (1177;759-2058; 37;29-55, respectively). At w12, GRalpha mRNA and GR protein were similar to w0. GRbeta expression was unaltered by treatment. Neither GRalpha nor GRbeta correlated with nasal symptoms. GR immunoreactivity negatively correlated with eosinophils (r = -0.478; P < 0.001).
GRalpha is downregulated in nasal polyps and upregulated by GC treatment. Neither GRalpha nor GRbeta appear to determine the sensitivity to GCs in nasal polyposis.
Article: Sex-specific associations between cortisol and birth weight in pregnancies complicated by asthma are not due to differential glucocorticoid receptor expression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fetal growth inhibition is a known sequelae of in utero glucocorticoid exposure and has long-term consequences for adult health. Sex-specific fetal growth patterns are observed in pregnancies with maternal asthma and may be due to differential sensitivity of the placenta to glucocorticoids. It is currently unknown whether expression of the placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR) becomes altered with asthma or the use of inhaled corticosteroids. Pregnant women with mild asthma (n=52), moderate-severe asthma (n=71) and without asthma (n=51) were recruited at John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, Australia. At delivery, placentae and cord blood were collected, and fetal sex and birth weight were recorded. Placental GR heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA), mRNA and protein were measured and cord blood cortisol concentrations were assessed. Placental GR gene activity increased with cortisol exposure but decreased with inhaled corticosteroid treatment (p=0.05). With maternal asthma, female birth weight centiles were inversely associated with cortisol (r=-0.286, p=0.017) and, despite a decrease in placental GR mRNA (p=0.003), placental GRalpha protein levels were unchanged. In males, no change to cortisol, birth weight or placental GR were evident in pregnancies with asthma. Together, these results indicate that in pregnancies complicated by asthma, placental GR gene activity, but not mRNA expression or protein levels, is dependent on cortisol and inhaled corticosteroid treatment. The sex-specific associations between cortisol and birth weight observed in pregnancies with asthma are not due to altered GR expression; however, they may be due to differential glucocorticoid sensitivity via preferential transcription of GR isoforms or post-translational modifications.Thorax 08/2010; 65(8):677-83. · 6.84 Impact Factor
Article: Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoids action: implications for treatment of rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intra-nasal glucocorticoids are the most effective drugs available for rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis treatment. Their effectiveness depends on many factors and not all of them have been well recognized so far. The authors present the basic information on molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid action, direct and indirect effects of glucocorticoids on transcription of genes encoding inflammatory mediators. They focus on recently proved nongenomic mechanisms which appear quickly, from several seconds to minutes after glucocorticoid administration and discuss clinical implications resulting from this knowledge. Discovery of nongenomic glucocorticoid actions allows for better use of these drugs in clinical practice.Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 02/2011; 268(2):247-53. · 1.29 Impact Factor