Subthalamic deep brain stimulation after anesthetic inhalation in Parkinson disease: a preliminary study.
ABSTRACT The authors of this preliminary study investigated the outcome and feasibility of intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) undergoing deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) after anesthetic inhalation.
The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 10 patients with PD who received a desflurane anesthetic during bilateral STN electrode implantation. The MERs were obtained as an intraoperative guide for final electrode implantation and the data were analyzed offline. The functional target coordinates of the electrodes were compared preoperatively with estimated target coordinates.
Outcomes were evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale 6 months after surgery. The mean improvement in total and motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores was 54.27 +/- 17.96% and 48.85 +/- 16.97%, respectively. The mean STN neuronal firing rate was 29.7 +/- 14.6 Hz. Typical neuronal firing patterns of the STN and substantia pars nigra reticulata were observed in each patient during surgery. Comparing the functional target coordinates, the z axis coordinates were noted to be significantly different between the pre- and postoperative coordinates.
The authors found that MER can be adequately performed while the patient receives a desflurane anesthetic, and the results can serve as a guide for STN electrode implantation. This may be a good alternative surgical method in patients with PD who are unable to tolerate deep brain stimulation surgery with local anesthesia.
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ABSTRACT: Dystonia is a neurological syndrome involving sustained contractions of opposing muscles leading to abnormal movements and postures. Recent studies report abnormally low pallidal neuronal activity in patients with generalized dystonia, suggesting hyperkinetic disorders result from underactive basal ganglia output. We examined this hypothesis in 11 patients with segmental and generalized dystonia undergoing microelectrode exploration of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) before pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation. The mean firing rates and firing patterns were compared with those in six patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In seven patients who underwent surgery under local anesthesia, the mean GPi firing rate was 77 Hz, similar to the 74 Hz observed in the PD patients. However, in three dystonic patients under propofol anesthesia, GPi mean firing rate was much reduced (31 Hz), and the firing pattern was distinguished by long pauses in activity, as reported by others. Low-dose propofol in one other dystonia patient also seemed to suppress GPi firing. These results indicate that an abnormally low basal ganglia output is not the sine qua non of dystonia. The widely accepted pathophysiological models of dystonia that propose global decreases in basal ganglia output need to be viewed with caution in light of these findings.Annals of Neurology 05/2003; 53(4):480-8. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spinal somatosensory-evoked potential (interspinous-space-recorded evoked potentials after peripheral nerve or dermatomal stimulation) and conductive spinal cord evoked potential (interspinous-space-recorded evoked potentials after spinal cord stimulation) were analyzed in rats under different concentrations of the anesthetic desflurane. To investigate and compare the effects of a new volatile anesthetic, desflurane, on the common intraoperative neuromonitoring models. Intraoperative evoked potentials are sensitive to most anesthetics. Interpretation of the data becomes complicated because of a suppression effect caused by the anesthesia. Desflurane has become a valuable anesthetic in neurosurgery because of its pharmacokinetic advantages. Fifteen rats were placed under general anesthesia, and vital signs were closely monitored. Needle recording electrodes were placed stereotactically into the thoracolumbar interspinous ligament; dermatomal somatosensory-evoked potential by L5 dermatome, mixed-nerve somatosensory-evoked potential by sciatic nerve stimulation, and spinal cord evoked potential of the same recording electrodes elicited by C2-C3 interspinous stimulation were obtained. The effects of desflurane were examined at end-tidal concentrations of 6% (1.05 minimal alveolar concentration), 9% (1.57 minimal alveolar concentration), and 12% (2.10 minimal alveolar concentration). Amplitude decreased and latency was delayed in all three kinds of potentials, and the more so with higher concentrations. Comparing 9% with 6% desflurane, the amplitude in dermatomal somatosensory-evoked potential, mixed-nerve somatosensory-evoked potential, and spinal cord evoked potential decreased to 84.3%, 88.9%, and 70.8%, respectively, values with no statistically significant difference. However, at 12%, again compared with 6%, the amplitude decreased further to 64.4%, 70.3%, 41.8%, respectively; mixed-nerve somatosensory-evoked potential and dermatomal somatosensory-evoked potential were significantly more preserved than spinal cord evoked potential (P = 0.04). The concentration of desflurane alters the amplitude of somatosensory-evoked potential and spinal cord evoked potential, and, to a lesser degree, delays the latency; spinal cord evoked potential is more liable to be suppressed than somatosensory-evoked potential. The dose-dependent suppression effect on amplitude should be considered when interpreting changes during surgery. Furthermore, the potential benefit of somatosensory-evoked potential elicited by direct major nerve stimulation should be considered because of its large amplitude and higher resistance, even with a greater concentration of volatile anesthetics.Spine 09/2003; 28(16):1845-50. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bilateral chronic high frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has emerged as an appropriate therapy for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease refractory to medical therapy. Advances in neuroimaging and neurophysiology have led to the development of varied targeting methods for the delivery of this treatment. Intraoperative neurophysiological and clinical monitoring is regarded by many to be mandatory for accurate STN localisation. We have examined efficacy of bilateral STN stimulation using a predominantly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-directed technique. DBS leads were stereotactically implanted into the STN using an MRI directed method, with intraoperative macrostimulation used purely for adjustment. The effects of DBS were evaluated in 16 patients followed up to 12 months, and compared with baseline assessments. Assessments were performed in both off and on medication states, and were based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and timed motor tests. Functional status outcomes were examined using the PDQ-39 quality of life questionnaire. A battery of psychometric tests was used to assess cognition. After 12 months, stimulation in the off medication state resulted in significant improvements in Activities of Daily Living and Motor scores (UPDRS parts II and III) by 62% and 61% respectively. Timed motor tests were significantly improved in the off medication state. Motor scores (UPDRS part III) were significantly improved by 40% in the on medication state. Dyskinesias and off duration were significantly reduced and the mean dose of L-dopa equivalents was reduced by half. Psychometric test scores were mostly unchanged or improved. Adverse events were few. An MRI directed targeting method for implantation of DBS leads into the STN can be used safely and effectively, and results are comparable with studies using intraoperative microelectrode neurophysiological targeting. In addition, our method was associated with an efficient use of operating time, and without the necessary costs of microelectrode recording.Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 01/2004; 74(12):1631-7. · 4.92 Impact Factor