Update on tizanidine for muscle spasticity and emerging indications.
ABSTRACT Tizanidine hydrochloride, an alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist, is a widely used medication for the treatment of muscle spasticity. Clinical studies have supported its use in the management of spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis (MS), acquired brain injury or spinal cord injury. It has also been shown to be clinically effective in the management of pain syndromes, such as: myofascial pain, lower back pain and trigeminal neuralgia. This review summarizes the recent findings on the clinical application of tizanidine.
Our objective was to review and summarize the medical literature regarding the evidence for the usefulness of tizanidine in the management of spasticity and in pain syndromes such as myofascial pain.
We reviewed the current medical and pharmacology literature through various internet literature searches. This information was then synthesized and presented in paragraph and table form.
Tizanidine hydrochloride is a very useful medication in patients suffering from spasticity caused by MS, acquired brain injury or spinal cord injury. It can also be helpful in patients suffering from chronic neck and/or lower back pain who have a myofascial component to their pain. Doses should be started at low dose and gradually titrated to effect.
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ABSTRACT: In this work a coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed slot dipole antenna has been integrated with a three-dimensional woodpile photonic bandgap crystal (PBG) in the W-band regime (67-110 GHz) using silicon. A slot dipole antenna has been designed and tested at 94 GHz which exhibits very poor efficiency and has high levels of loss through the back of the substrate. This integration has shown a large positional dependence of the antenna with respect to the layers of the PBG and has led to the optimisation of a slot dipole antenna on the PBG. This type of integration has shown experimentally that the overall operation of an antenna can be greatly improved due to the reflective properties of the PBG.Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2004. IEEE; 07/2004
Article: Is spasticity painful?European Journal of Neurology 03/2009; 16(2):157-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02371.x · 3.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The achievements in both preclinical and clinical pain research over the past 4 decades have led to significant progress in clinical pain management. However, pain research still faces enormous challenges and there remain many obstacles in the treatment of clinical pain, particularly chronic pain. Translational pain research needs to involve a number of important areas including: 1) bridging the gap between pain research and clinical pain management; 2) developing objective pain-assessment tools; 3) analyzing current theories of pain mechanisms and their relevance to clinical pain; 4) exploring new tools for both preclinical and clinical pain research; and 5) coordinating research efforts among basic scientists, clinical investigators, and pain-medicine practitioners. These issues are discussed in this article in light of the achievements and challenges of translational pain research. PERSPECTIVE: The subjective nature of clinical pain calls for innovative research approaches. As translational pain research emerges as an important field in pain medicine, it will play a unique role in improving clinical pain management through coordinated bidirectional research approaches between bedside and bench.The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society 08/2009; 10(10):1001-11. DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2009.06.002 · 4.22 Impact Factor