There is no standard first-line therapy for advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma and the prognosis remains poor. Our institution conducted a phase I study of oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and capecitabine given in a novel, weekly schedule. The regimen was tolerated; pharmacodynamic studies revealed no drug interactions, and there was one confirmed response in a gastric cancer patient. We performed a phase II trial in advanced gastric and GEJ adenocarcinoma to determine response rate and response duration.
This was a multi-center single treatment arm study involving six sites. Only prior adjuvant therapy was allowed. Patients had ECOG performance status of 0-2, adequate organ function, and were able to tolerate oral medications. All patients received oxaliplatin 60 mg/m(2) intravenously (IV) and irinotecan 50 mg/m(2) IV weekly times 4 weeks with a 2-week rest period. Capecitabine 450 mg bid orally was received on days 1 through 5 every week for 4 weeks, followed by a 2-week rest. Patients were assessed for response after the first two cycles; response duration, overall survival, and adverse events were also recorded. We estimated an improvement in historical response rate by 30% would have clinical meaning.
A total of 39 patients were accrued and all were assessed for toxicity; 30 patients were evaluable for response. The median age was 57.8 years (31-79 years) and 74% were male. Two patients had a complete response, with nine patients achieving a partial response. The total response rate was 28%, with nine patients not evaluable for response. The median response duration was noted at 5.97 months and median overall survival was 8.98 months. There were no grade 5 treatment related events, with all deaths secondary to disease progression. Only five grade 4 events occurred (neutropenia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia (2), thrombosis/embolism) without grade 4 diarrhea or sensory neuropathy.
Oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and capecitabine given in a novel, weekly schedule does induce responses in advanced gastric and GEJ adenocarcinoma. However, the total response rate is modest and not an improvement over other regimens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MEDICATION SAFETY Overlooked Renal Dosage Adjustments A retrospective analysis of 647 patients at hospital discharge com-pared required renal dosage adjust-ments to dosage actually prescribed. This study was conducted at VieCuri Medical Centre in Venlo, Netherlands. Patient demographics and renal function data were col-lected, and dosage adjustment needs were assessed via the pharmacy-supported discharge counseling ser-vice. The incidence of inappropriate dosing based on renal function was measured at hospital discharge. Thirty-seven percent of patients evaluated during the study period (237/647) had a creatinine clear-ance less than 51 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ; dosage adjustment was warranted in 23.9% (411/1,718) of prescrip-tions. When dosage adjustment should have been performed, more than 40% of prescriptions (169/411; 41.1%) were inappropri-ate for renal function (9.8% of pre-scriptions overall; 169/1,718). Fur-thermore, 60.4% (102/169) of inappropriate prescriptions pos-sessed the potential for moderate or severe clinical consequences, as evaluated by a panel of two clinical pharmacologists and one nephrolo-gist. Study authors also noted a lack of standardized dosing guidelines for agents requiring renal dosage adjustment. The authors also sug-gested that augmenting medication systems by adding dynamic renal dosing alerts would improve moni-toring. Summary: A comparison of suggested renal dosing and actual dosing at hospital discharge revealed that appropriate prescribing may be overlooked. van Dijk EA, Drabbe NRG, Kruijtbosch M, De Smet PAGM. Drug dosage adjust-ments according to renal function at hos-pital discharge. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:1254-1260.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small cell cancers of the gastrointestinal tract are part of a family of extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas. These tumors can occur anywhere in the body and generally carry a poor prognosis. Treatment usually consists of a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We present two cases illustrating diagnostic and treatment issues and review the literature on the treatment of this uncommon but aggressive family of tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A phase I multicentre trial was conducted to define the recommended dose of capecitabine in combination with oxaliplatin and irinotecan (OCX) in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Patients with performance status (PS) < 2 and adequate haematological, renal and liver function received oxaliplatin 70 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15, irinotecan 100 mg/m(2) on days 8 and 22 and one of five dose levels (DL 1-5, between 800 and 1,600 mg/ m(2)) of capecitabine on days 1-29 every 5 weeks.
23 patients received a median of 3 cycles. 3 dose-limiting toxicities occurred (DL 1: grade 3 (G3) elevated alkaline phosphatase; DL 5: 1 patient G4 hyperglycaemia/G3 diarrhoea and 1 sudden death). The most common severe adverse event was G3 diarrhoea (13%). Severe haematotoxicity was rare. Therapy was stopped mainly due to metastasectomy or tumour progression (7 patients each). 8 patients reached a partial response. Median time to progression and overall survival (OS) were 8.0 and 21.9 months, respectively.
The recommended capecitabine dose in this schedule is 1,400 mg/m(2) daily. The OCX regimen is well tolerated. The response rate was surprisingly low with progression-free survival (PFS) and OS within the range of a triple combination. Further studies in combination with targeted agents are warranted.
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