CD4 Cell Response Before and After HAART Initiation According to Viral Load and Growth Indicators in HIV-1-Infected Children in Abidjan Côte d'Ivoire
ABSTRACT To analyze the determinants of CD4 change in children during 3 periods: before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), during the first year after HAART initiation, and past 1 year after HAART initiation.
One hundred seventy-seven children enrolled in a prospective cohort in Abidjan received HAART during a mean follow-up of 30 months. A linear mixed-effects model was used for the first period, a mixed-effects piecewise model for the second period, and an asymptotic mixed-effects model for long-term CD4 dynamics.
Before HAART initiation, CD4 percentage decreased along time [beta = -0.59 (-0.92 to -0.26)] was positively associated with body mass index for age [beta = 0.47 (0.22 to 0.72)] and negatively associated with viral load [beta = -1.01 (-1.90 to -0.13)]. During the first year of treatment, the CD4 decrease reverted to a steep increase that was negatively associated with age at HAART initiation [beta = -0.24 (-0.4 to -0.07)] and with the mean viral load under HAART [beta = -1.51 (-2.21 to -0.81)]. The long-term CD4 percentage was also negatively associated with the mean viral load under HAART [beta = -4.97 (-6.22 to -3.72)] and age at HAART initiation [beta = -0.82 (-1.12 to -0.51)].
Before HAART initiation, the CD4 cell percentage was associated with growth indicators whereas, after HAART, an early increase and a long-term plateau were negatively associated with the viral load and age at HAART initiation.
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ABSTRACT: Responses to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in resource-limited settings have recently been reported, but outcomes vary. We sought to derive pooled estimates of the 12-month rate of virologic suppression (HIV RNA, <400 copies/mL) and gain in CD4 cell percentage (DeltaCD4%) for children initiating ART in resource-limited settings. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published reports of HIV RNA and CD4 outcomes for treatment-naive children aged 0-17 years old by means of the Medline, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database), and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) electronic databases and the Cochrane Clinical Trials Register. Pooled estimates of the reported proportion with HIV RNA <400 copies/mL and DeltaCD4% after 12 months of ART were derived using patient-level estimates and fixed- and random-effects models. To approximate intention-to-treat analyses, in sensitivity analyses children with missing 12-month data were assumed to have HIV RNA>400 copies/mL or DeltaCD4% of zero. In patient-level estimates after 12 months of ART, the pooled proportion with virologic suppression was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-73%); the pooled DeltaCD4% was 13.7% (95% CI, 11.8%-15.7%). Results from the fixed- and random-effects models were similar. In approximated intention-to-treat analyses, the pooled estimates decreased to 53% with virologic suppression (95% CI, 50%-55%) and to a DeltaCD4% of 8.5% (95% CI, 5.5%-11.4%). Pooled estimates of reported virologic and immunologic benefits after 12 months of ART among HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings are comparable with those observed among children in developed settings. Consistency in reporting on reasons for missing data will aid in the evaluation of ART outcomes in resource-limited settings.Clinical Infectious Diseases 11/2009; 49(12):1915-27. DOI:10.1086/648079 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In resource-limited countries, use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected children is still poorly documented in terms of impact on survival, the immune system and growth. Since the availability of HAART, nutrition of HIV-infected children has been neglected. To evaluate the effect of HAART on survival and immune response in HIV-infected children and to investigate the response to nutritional support. In December, 2002 a cohort study was carried out on vertically HIV-1-infected children and was observed longitudinally for CD4(+) T-cell count, antiretroviral treatment and weight until 31 December 2007. Z-scores were calculated for CD4(+) T-cell count to account for age-related differences. Nutritional supplementation was given to all the HIV-infected children and resting energy expenditure (REE) was calculated. Mortality rates were also calculated for the perinatally infected children followed up at the HIV clinic. A total of 180 children were assessed, 100 (56%) of whom were on HAART. Baseline body mass index was lower in the HAART group (p<0.05). Median duration of survival from date of diagnosis was 15.1 years. Those who received HAART survived significantly longer. The average annual mortality rate was 1.2% during 2005-2006. During HAART, a CD4 Z-score increase of 1 SD was associated with a 0.35 increase in body weight Z-score (p<0.001). The increase in daily energy intake owing to nutritional supplementation was associated with increase in weight Z-score in both the no-HAART and HAART group. REE was independently associated with weight change in the models which tested association of changes in CD4(+) T-cell Z-score and daily REE/kg body weight with changes in body weight Z-score in both the HAART and no-HAART group and then separately in the two groups (p<0.001). Survival rates of children improved which correlated with an increase in CD4(+) T-cell count concurrent with the expanded use of HAART. HAART had a positive effect on growth in HIV-1-infected children. Nutrition supplementation improved the health of children in both the no-HAART and HAART groups.Annals of Tropical Paediatrics International Child Health 03/2010; 30(1):27-37. DOI:10.1179/146532810X12637745451915 · 1.17 Impact Factor