Structure-activity relationships of phenylalkylamines as agonist ligands for 5-HT2A receptors
ABSTRACT Agonist activation of central 5-HT(2A) receptors results in diverse effects, such as hallucinations and changes of consciousness. Recent findings indicate that activation of the 5-HT(2A) receptor also leads to interesting physiological responses, possibly holding therapeutic value. Selective agonists are needed to study the full therapeutic potential of this receptor. 5-HT(2A) ligands with agonist profiles are primarily derived from phenylalkylamines, indolealkylamines, and certain piperazines. Of these, phenylalkylamines, most notably substituted phenylisopropylamines, are considered the most selective agonists for 5-HT(2) receptors. This review summarizes the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of phenylalkylamines as agonist ligands for 5-HT(2A) receptors. Selectivity is a central theme, as is selectivity for the 5-HT(2A) receptor and for its specific signaling pathways. SAR data from receptor affinity studies, functional assays, behavioral drug discrimination as well as human studies are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Rationale 2-([2-(4-cyano-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamino]-methyl)phenol (25CN-NBOH) is structurally similar to N-benzyl substituted phenethylamine hallucinogens currently emerging as drugs of abuse. 25CN-NBOH exhibits dramatic selectivity for 5-HT 2A receptors in vitro, but has not been behaviorally characterized. Objective 25CN-NBOH was compared to the traditional phenethylamine hallucinogen R(-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) using mouse models of drug-elicited head twitch behavior and drug discrimination. Methods Drug-elicited head twitches were quantified for 10 min following administration of various doses of either DOI or 25CN-NBOH, with and without pretreatments of 0.01 mg/kg 5-HT 2A antagonist M100907 or 3.0 mg/kg 5-HT 2C antagonist RS102221. The capacity of 25CN-NBOH to attenuate DOI-elicited head twitch was also investigated. Mice were trained to discriminate DOI or M100907 from saline, and 25CN-NBOH was tested for generalization. Results 25CN-NBOH induced a head twitch response in the mouse that was lower in magnitude than that of DOI, blocked by M100907, but not altered by RS102221. DOI-elicited head twitch was dose-dependently attenuated by 25CN-NBOH pretreatment. 25CN-NBOH produced an intermediate degree of generalization (55 %) for the DOI training dose, and these interoceptive effects were attenuated by M100907. Finally, 25CN-NBOH did not generalize to M100907 at any dose, but ketanserin fully substituted in these animals. Conclusions 25CN-NBOH was behaviorally active, but less effective than DOI in two mouse models of hallucinogenic effects. The effectiveness with which M100907 antagonized the behavioral actions of 25CN-NBOH strongly suggests that the 5-HT 2A receptor is an important site of agonist action for this compound in vivo.Psychopharmacology 09/2014; 232(6). DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3739-3 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Global QSAR models predict biological response of molecular structures which are generic in particular class. A global QSAR dataset admits structural features derived from larger chemical space, intricate to model but more applicable in medicinal chemistry. The present work is global in either sense of structural diversity in QSAR dataset or large number of descriptor input. Forty phenethylamine structure derivatives were selected from a large pool (904) of similar phenethylamines available in Pubchem database. LogP values of selected candidates were collected from physical properties database (PHYSPROP) determined in identical set of conditions. Attempts to model logP value have produced significant QSAR models. MLR aided linear one-variable and two-variable QSAR models with their respective R(2) (0.866, 0.937), R(2)A (0.862, 0.932), F-stat (181.936, 199.812) and Standard Error (0.365, 0.255) are statistically fit and found predictive after internal validation and external validation. The descriptors chosen after improvisation and optimization reveal mechanistic part of work in terms of Verhaar model of Fish base-line toxicity from MLOGP, i.e. (BLTF96) and 3D-MoRSE -signal 15 /unweighted molecular descriptor calculated by summing atom weights viewed by a different angular scattering function (Mor15u) are crucial in regulation of logP values of phenethylamines.Interdisciplinary Sciences Computational Life Sciences 06/2013; 5(2):150-4. DOI:10.1007/s12539-013-0162-0 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 2,5-Dimethoxyphenethylamines and their N-benzylated derivatives are potent 5-HT2A agonists with psychedelic effects in humans. The N-benzylated derivatives are among the most selective 5-HT2A agonists currently available and their usage as biochemical and brain imaging tools is increasing, yet very little is known about the relationships between the structure of the ligands and their pharmacokinetic profile. In order to evaluate the potential of these compounds for in vivo applications we have determined the microsomal stability of 11 phenethylamines and 27 N-benzylated derivatives thereof using human liver microsomes. We found that the N-benzylated phenethylamines have much higher intrinsic clearance than the parent phenethylamines. We hypothesize that their low hepatic stability renders them orally inactive due to first pass metabolism, which is supported by anecdotal data from recreational use of these compounds.Neurochemical Research 02/2014; 39(5). DOI:10.1007/s11064-014-1253-y · 2.55 Impact Factor