Superior temporal gyrus spectral abnormalities in schizophrenia.

Department of Psychology, Beckman Institute Biomedical Imaging Center, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
Psychophysiology (Impact Factor: 3.26). 08/2008; 45(5):812-24. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2008.00682.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Considerable evidence indicates early auditory stimulus processing abnormalities in schizophrenia, but the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined oscillatory phenomena during a paired-click paradigm in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) as a possible core problem. The primary question addressed is whether first click and/or second click group differences in the time-domain evoked response in patients with schizophrenia are due to (1) group differences in the magnitude of poststimulus oscillatory activity, (2) group differences in poststimulus phase-locking, and/or (3) group differences in the magnitude of ongoing background oscillatory activity. Dense-array magnetoencephalography from 45 controls and 45 patients with schizophrenia produced left- and right-hemisphere STG 50- and 100-ms time-frequency evoked, phase-locking, and total power measures. Whereas first click 100-ms evoked theta and alpha abnormalities were observed bilaterally, evoked low beta-band differences were specific to the left hemisphere. Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia showed more low-frequency phase variability, and the decreased 100-ms S1 evoked response observed in patients was best predicted by the STG phase-locking measure.

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    ABSTRACT: Typescript. Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Carolina, 2002. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 60-63).
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    ABSTRACT: Evoked and induced event-related neural oscillations have recently been proposed as a key mechanism supporting higher-order cognition. Cognitive decay and abnormal electromagnetic sensory gating reliably distinguish schizophrenia (SZ) patients and healthy individuals, demonstrated in chronic (CHR) and first-admission (FA) patients. Not yet determined is whether altered event-related modulation of oscillatory activity is manifested at early stages of SZ, thus reflects and perhaps embodies the development of psychopathology, and provides a mechanism for the gating deficit. The present study compared behavioral and functional brain measures in CHR and FA samples. Cognitive test performance (MATRICS Consortium Cognitive Battery, MCCB), neuromagnetic event-related fields (M50 gating ratio), and oscillatory dynamics (evoked and induced modulation of 8-12Hz alpha) during a paired-click task were assessed in 35 CHR and 31 FA patients meeting the criteria for ICD-10 diagnoses of schizophrenia as well as 28 healthy comparison subjects (HC). Both patient groups displayed poorer cognitive performance, higher M50 ratio (poorer sensory gating), and less induced modulation of alpha activity than did HC. Induced alpha power decrease in bilateral posterior regions varied with M50 ratio in HC but not SZ, whereas orbitofrontal alpha power decrease was related to M50 ratio in SZ but not HC. Results suggest disruption of oscillatory dynamics at early stages of illness, which may contribute to deficient information sampling, memory updating, and higher cognitive functioning.
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    ABSTRACT: The ratio of magnetoencephalogram-recorded brain responses occurring 50ms after paired clicks (S2-evoked M50/S1-evoked M50) serves as a measure of sensory gating. An abnormally large ratio is commonly found in schizophrenia. Whether this abnormality indicates impaired gating is debated. Using event-related oscillations the present study sought to elucidate processes contributing to the phenomenon of altered M50 gating ratio. Schizophrenia inpatients (n=50) showed the expected large M50 gating ratio relative to 48 healthy controls, which correlated with less induced frontally generated activity in the 10-15Hz frequency band starting 200ms before the onset of S2. Patients also produced smaller alpha (8-12Hz) and gamma (60-80Hz) responses to S1. Results suggest that the deviant gating ratio in schizophrenia is a consequence of a complex alteration in the processing of incoming information that cannot be attributed to impaired gating alone.
    NeuroImage 02/2011; 56(1):307-14. · 6.25 Impact Factor

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